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1
Content available Męskość fabrykowana Rzecz o homospołeczności
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EN
The article is devoted to the issue of homosociety. The term became popularized by Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick in her book Between Men. English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire (1985). It refers to all the relationships between men who support one another’s strivings and interests, and who at the same time constitute a group grounded on the discrimination of women and homosexuals. This phenomenon is based for example on the “trade of women”: men exchange women, thus creating patriarchal and patrilineal relations. The issue has been extensively analysed by a great number of researchers (e.g. Luce Irigaray, Adrienne Rich, Pierre Bourdieu, Judith Butler, and in Poland: Maria Janion, Błażej Warkocki, Tomasz Basiuk or Jacek Kochanowski). The work is also worth noting is The Role of Eroticism in Male Society (Die Rolle der Erotik in der männlichen Gesellschaft) by Hans Blüher, who viewed male bonding (homosocial and homosexual) as the key to building and developing society.
PL
Geje przez lata odwoływali się do tekstów, podmiotów i znaków należących do kultury dominującej, nadając im alternatywne i subkulturowe znaczenia. Teksty te dostarczały im – zwłaszcza w epoce przedemancypacyjnej – języka pozwalającego wyrazić ich doświadczenia. Jagielski przedmiotem swego zainteresowania czyni związki łączące homoseksualnego widza z kobiecymi gwiazdami (diwami): analizuje powody, dla których gejowski widz tak chętnie podąża w stronę filmowych obrazów, rodowód fascynacji homoseksualistów diwami oraz wątpliwości, jakie rodzi ta afiliacja. Za ilustrację służy mu wizerunek Violetty Villas, kobiety-monstrum, która przez arbitrów dobrego smaku została uznana za odpad. Jej ciało było karnawałową maskaradą , ekscesem, którego nie sposób zaakceptować. Ale ciało to okazało się potworne dopiero w zderzeniu z kontekstem (PRL). Gwiazda w swym wizerunku łączyła to, co abiektalne z kampem, który przez parodystyczną hiperbolizację podważa dominujące wzorce płci i seksualności. Villas i „cioty” łączy miejsce, które przyszło im zająć – poza wszelkimi granicami.
EN
Gays through the years referred to texts, subjects and symbols belonging to the dominant culture, giving them alternative and subcultural meanings. These texts provided them, especially in the pre-emancipation era, with the language which enabled them to express their experiences. Jagielski in his article focuses on the relations between the homosexual viewer and female stars (divas): he analyses the reasons for which gay viewers are so eager to follow film images, he considers the genealogy of gays’ fascination with divas, and doubts raised by this affiliation. He illustrates his argument with the image of Violetta Villas, a woman-monster, who by connoisseurs of good taste was rejected as rubbish. Her body was a carnival masquerade, an excess which it was impossible to accept. But this body appeared monstrous only when it clashed with the context of the socialist period in Poland. The star combined in her image that which is abjectal with camp, which through parodistic hyperbolization undermines the dominant models of gender and sexuality. Villas and “fagots” share in common the place in which they find themselves – they are beyond any boundaries.
EN
This work is to discuss the content of inspired texts concerning homosexuality. Homoeroticism was a phenomenon well-known and tolerated in the communities of the Ancient East. The authors of the Bible are opposed to the practice of homosexual acts finding them in contrary to the nature and will of God revealed in the act of creation (cf. Gen 1–2). Holiness Code defines it as “an abomination” (Lev 18,22) punishable by death (Lev 20,13). The Apostle Paul in his mission ad gentes teaches that homosexual acts are the result of human perversity which turns the truth of God into a lie. In the act of same-sex intercourse people assume roles opposite their nature, causing it to become distorted.
4
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The aim of the study was to explore the experiences of homosexual men connected with the formation of their sexual orientation in adolescence. A comparative study of 27 young adult homosexual men and 28 heterosexual men of similar age used a categorised interview questionnaire consisting of two parts: the first with questions regarding sexual dreams, fantasies and erotic encounters; the second with questions on family and social circumstances. The study yielded an abundance of interesting data on the psychological circumstances of homosexual men during the formation of sexual orientation and its awareness as well as differences and similarities in that area between homosexual and heterosexual men. For instance, it revealed experience patterns concerning the formation of sexual identity and personal attitudes toward one’s sexual orientation characteristic of homosexual persons. The study verified the main hypothesis that mental-internal experiences precede behavioural-external ones both in homosexual and heterosexual persons.
EN
The dance hall in Britain had always served as the best place for women to meet available men. During the First World War, three million men had died in the battlefields, which created a gross imbalance between the men-women ratio. However Barbara Cartland remembered her contemporaries who “reddened their lips and [went] out to dance when all they loved most [had] been lost” (1942). After the Battle of Somme, hostesses changed their invitations from “Miss–“ to “Miss– and partner,” implying that women would have to bring their own partners. Hence in the dance halls and clubs, traditional gender roles and rules of courtship had been reversed: instead of men courting women, women were now hankering after the few available men. On the other hand, at the Cafe Royal, the Ham Bone Club, and the Cave of Harmony, homosexual women could dance together unafraid, as the dearth of men provided the perfect alibi. In this paper I will examine how dance halls and dance clubs became spatial sites of transgression to prescribed gender roles; how these transgressions led to the blurring of class distinctions; the perception of the problem of homosexuality as arising from the dearth of men; and above all the enacting of gender as performance. To this end, I will refer to Rosamond Lehmann’s Invitation to the Waltz (1932) and Robert Graves’s and Alan Hodge’s The Long Week-End (1941).
6
Content available remote Więźniowie z różowym trójkątem w KL Auschwitz
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EN
The article discusses the issue of prisoners detained in KL Auschwitz for homosexuality under Paragraph 175 of the Criminal Code of the German Reich. The aim of the article is, however, not analysis of the problem of the occurrence of homosexuality among prisoners detained in the camp, which is a separate research topic. Prisoners incarcerated in KL Auschwitz under Paragraph 175 of the German Criminal Code were – in comparison to other German concentration camps – only a small percentage of prisoners. This is probably due to the fact that under Paragraph 175 Germans and persons with the citizenship of the Reich were imprisoned in concentration camps. The peripheral location of Auschwitz may also have impacted on the small number of prisoners with a pink triangle. Based on partly preserved archival documentation of the former KL Auschwitz, data of at least 77 prisoners of this category were established. The specificity of the source base (a scarcity of documents and the testimonies of other prisoners, including a complete lack of testimonies by prisoners of Paragraph 175) meant that in the existing literature on the subject in relation to KL Auschwitz, attention was paid mainly to the problem of homosexuality among criminal prisoners and not to the problem of the prisoners detained under Paragraph 175. Absence of more extensive sources accounts for merely an overall presentation of the issue of prisoners with a pink triangle in KL Auschwitz in the article. First of all, a comparative analysis with other German concentration camps was performed, but a social cross-section of this category of prisoners in KL Auschwitz and their fates in the camp, including mortality are also presented.
EN
One of the dominant themes in the work of Andrzej Wajda is the male homo-social desire. In "The Promised Land" it takes on a particularly dangerous form. Placing homosexuality (or more broadly – sexual minority) within a context of tolerant and accepting male community does not fit into accepted narrative of the nation, within which gays are always presented as enemies. Although in the film the ideal body of a Pole is contrasted with the anti-body of a homosexual Jew, the relations between them are not shaped according to the national, anti-gay script. Multicultural male homo-community is an alternative to family life and nation-state identity. In Wajda’s film the weaning patriotic ethos clashes with the emerging, future oriented community. The analysis of the male homo-social community is preceded by a presentation and analysis of the American sub-genre of buddy films of the 1970s, to which Wajda directly refers.
Mäetagused
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2018
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tom 71
143-174
EN
The criminal code of the Republic of Estonia, in which homosexual acts between consenting adults were not considered to be a crime, was adopted in 1929 but came into force as late as at the beginning of 1935. Before the adoption of the new criminal law, the criminal and correctional penal code of Imperial Russia was observed in the Republic of Estonia, and Article 995 of this code considered “pederasty” a crime. The article analyses three court cases of men on trial for homosexuality at the Military District Court of the Republic of Estonia in 1919, 1929, and 1931. In addition to the court cases, articles discussing homosexuality published in the newspapers of the period are used as sources to provide a context and discourse to frame the court files under discussion. I analyse specific texts related to punishment and correction, included in the court files, as potential sources in queer history research. The majority of approaches to homosexuality published in the written press in the 1920s and 1930s are misogynist and reproduce certain prejudices, notably emphasising, among other things, the spreadability of homosexuality in military institutions. At the same time, one can find newspaper texts which mediate ideas that were topical in Europe at the time about how homosexuality as a congenital condition should not be punishable by criminal law. The court cases about “pederasty” emphatically focus on sex: the cases deal with criminalised sexual intercourse rather than, for example, explore romantic feelings or love. Owing to the focus on perversity and accusations, the cases are highly discriminatory and negative portrayals of the people. Writers of the transcripts have transformed the testimonies of the witnesses and the accused persons into odd court jargon and the accused themselves strive to impart as little information about them as possible. The accused may lie and be secretive or make desperate confessions but the information written in the transcripts is peculiarly biased and superficial. The people accused in these court cases are of various backgrounds, and the gallery of characters is further widened by men who testified as witnesses and were sometimes part of a closer social circle of the accused. Manifestations of so-called homosexual desire in these stories also vary – there are consenting sexual intercourses, but also hierarchical, violent ones, or those the nature of which remains ambivalent in the sources. What really happened between the men prosecuted at the military district court remains largely hidden behind the veil of secrecy. The court transcripts are full of conflicting testimonies and generally speak only of physical bodies and convey the impressions of eye-witnesses. Emotions, sought after by queer histories, are explicitly scarce in the transcripts. Regardless of that, there are flashes of information popping up from time to time, casting most light on the lives and everyday practices of the accused or the nature of their homosexual desire.
9
Content available Alternatively the Role of Parents
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EN
Topic of homosexuality is gradually coming to consciousness (not only) in Slovak society and it also due to the many professional works, which after the political changes in the last decade in our country gradually emerge from the depths of the taboo spheres to the spheres of ideological confrontations and constructive discussions. We do not claim that our society has reached the necessary level of debate both groups, heterosexual majority and gay and lesbian minority. However, took a path whose goal has signs of democratic society. All new phenomena must strike a long way till they are completely understated, accepted by society and at last integrated to the common life of society. Homosexuality is such a phenomenon. This path is a test of endurance gays and lesbians and heterosexuals test of democratic thinking. The contribution we tried to transmit a little further from the general question of homosexuality, specifically one of the areas described below, which is an area of „presence” of the child in the gay and lesbian partnerships.
EN
Classical concepts of human development elaborated in the 20th century do not take into consideration the normative development of homosexual people. On the other hand, the depathologization of homosexuality has resulted in an increase of knowledge about gays’ and lesbians’ performance and health. The process of homosexual identity formation, usually beginning in adolescence, has been recognized and well described in the field of psychology. However, this knowledge is rarely integrated with general theories of human development. The article presents the developmental challenges of adolescence and points out the limitations and possibilities of Erikson’s theory in incorporating the experiences of homosexual adolescents. The authors discuss the specific difficulties minority adolescents face growing up in a heteronormative culture and the main stages of homosexual identity formation. The article ends with a reflection on the possibility of integrating the concept of homosexual identity development with Erik Erikson’s theory of identity crisis and its potential solutions in adolescence.
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The article concerns homosexuality as a social phenomenon, constructed and regulated by cultural definition and norms. Historical changes of these definitions go hand in hand with the evolution of social sciences’ approach to non-normative sexualities. These transformations are reflected in language, which in turn heavily influence the processes of constructing sexual identities. This article presents excerpts from research which illustrates the aforementioned phenomena. The research consisted of biographic-narrative interviews with gay men who built the core of their sexual identity in times of Polish People’s Republic, where available language resources were more of a barrier than aid in such processes.
EN
The main goal of this article was to examine the role of loneliness in the short stories by Yevgeny Kharitonov, whose pieces are considered to be representative for Russian gay literature (LGBT Literature) of the Soviet period. This article explores the reasons why loneliness and its subsequent stages became the main motif of Kharitonov's literary work. The term "sterile loneliness", brought to light by Eduard Limonov, perfectly reflects the deep sense of loneliness which is the worst struggle in the main character’s life. The author of this article attempts to show the psychological figure of a lonely and love-awaiting character in the short stories by Yevgeny Kharitonov.
EN
Interpretation of the relationship Tadeusz Zawadzki ”Zośka” and Jan Bytnar ”Rudy” – heroes Stones for the rampart by Alexander Kaminski made by Elizabeth Janicka, according to which the two men combined homoerotic love, caused the Polish literary environment and media controversy. On the one hand, there are calls for „tarnish the national holiness”, on the other hand, other environmental endorsed a model of reading the text. Janicka basing their conclusions on passages from the novel Kaminski, specifically one more part, did not seriously examine philological work. This article attempts to answer the question: Is homosexuality in the text? With underlying thesis inspiring researcher, author Festung Warschau, is carried out detailed analysis of the Stones for the rampart. One of the main points of the article is an indication that the discussion is directed to novel wide audience literary text, fictional, despite existing prototypes characters actually work.
EN
Why does André Gide so often compare Chopin to Baudelaire? For several reasons: because for him, the two artists are unique, irreplaceable, incomparable; because both were initially misunderstood; and because they are both classics of the nineteenth century. In other words, what distinguishes them, according to Gide, is their aesthetics of discretion, which is verysimilar to the one he develops in his own works – particularly those in which he defends the homosexual cause.
EN
The review sums up Piotr Seweryn Rosół’s book devoted to the relation between Witold Gombrowicz and Jean Genet. Despite his critical overtone, the author does not explicitly assess Rosół’s book. He argues with the general idea but notices ambitious intentions and interesting interpretations, which prevents him from rejecting the book as such. On the one hand, Rosół’s work bears the hallmarks of Gombrowicz studies truisms, and on the other hand, it renews some interpretations as it suggests that Gombrowicz uses Genet to “outline” the shape of generally avoided issue of homosexuality. Rosół’s book proves that certain way of critical reading of Gombrowicz is no longer valuable and although he attempts to transgress the traditional critical approach, he does it inconsistently.
EN
The Men with the Pink Triangle shows that sexuality is an indispensable ingredient of power. Heinz Heger’s narrative gives an opportunity to depict the relation between masters and subordinates which still contributes to social identities formation. Moreover, Heger’s memories above all else enable us to recognize still valid, and getting stronger, homophobic strategies stemming not only from actions but also from language known as hate speech. Additionally, Heinz Heger’s book confirms the necessity of rereading holocaust literature within new interpretative paradigm.
EN
„Let’s not be too eager about equality” – brain sex, heteronormativity, and the scientific mystiqueThe article analyses the role of brain sex in Polish public discourse of the last years. The authors of a popular book Brain Sex claim that differences between women and men stem from differences in the brain structure, and because of that they are universal and unchangeable; feminism is based on misrepresentation of science. This thesis was overtaken by right-wing journalists, as it gave scientific justification to conservative gender politics and contemplementarity – the gender ontology of the Catholic church. However, in the rightwing journalism a significant aspect of brain sex theory is silenced, namely, the claim that homo- and transsexuality result from disorders in brain development; they are unchangeable and should be accepted. Despite its conservative roots, brain sex was popularized in liberal media as well. The aura of science that accompanied this popular theory allowed to naturalize its anti-feminism and heteronormativity. This phenomenon is discussed on the basis of media activity of two Polish scientists who are popular both in right-wing and liberal media: Anna Grabowska and Jerzy Vetulani. Both present brain sex theory as objective, universally accepted truth, which is attacked in the name of the leftist ideology by ignorant activists who deny science. „Nie popadajmy w przesadę z tą równością” – płeć mózgu, heteronorma i mistyka naukowościArtykuł analizuje rolę płci mózgu w polskim dyskursie publicznym ostatnich lat. Autorzy niezwykle popularnej w Polsce książki Płeć mózgu twierdzą, że różnice między kobietami i mężczyznami wynikają z różnic w budowie mózgów, a przez to są uniwersalne i niezmienne, feminizm zaś jest oparty na fałszowaniu nauki. Teza ta została podchwycona przez prawicowych publicystów, ponieważ nadawała naukową legitymację konserwatywnej polityce płci oraz komplementaryzmowi – ontologii płci przyjętej przez Kościół katolicki. W prawicowym piśmiennictwie przemilcza się jednak istotny aspekt płci mózgu, mianowicie twierdzenie, że homo- i transseksualność wynikają z wad w rozwoju mózgu, są niezmienne i powinny być akceptowane. Mimo swoich konserwatywnych korzeni płeć mózgu była popularyzowana także w mediach liberalnych. Nimb naukowości, którym otaczany był popularny pogląd, pozwalał naturalizować związane z nim antyfeminizm i heteronormatywność. Zjawisko to omówione jest na podstawie działalności popularyzatorskiej dwojga naukowców, cieszących się popularnością zarówno w prawicowych, jak i liberalnych mediach: Anny Grabowskiej i Jerzego Vetulaniego. Oboje przedstawiali płeć mózgu jako obiektywną, powszechnie uznawaną naukową prawdę, z którą w imię lewicowej ideologii próbują walczyć nieakceptujący ustaleń nauki aktywiści.
EN
The article focuses on young people of foreign origin in Italy, analysing in particular the experiences of those of a homosexual orientation. Starting from a theoretical reflection that takes into account the various possible statuses expressing young migrants situation, we will analyse the complexities that arise in terms of identity for young foreigners who, when living their sexuality, relate both with the cultural standards of the country of origin (often homophobic and repressive) and with those of the host country, in which they can instead intercept new opportunities to express themselves and their desires. The core idea is to verify the means through which they manage these contrasts, aiming at empirically outlining the strategies of behaviour, thus increasing the understanding of the ongoing processes of social and cultural integration.
19
Content available remote Vynález heterosexuality (komentář Věra Sokolová)
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EN
The paper maps the history of the term and ideas about heterosexuality in the United States of America since the second half of the 19th century until the 20th century. Katz focuses primarily on the construction of the concept and terminological apparatus of heterosexuality (and homosexuality) in the medical discourse, its entry into the social mind and historical changes in the subsequent periods.
EN
Both the Roman Catholic Church and the canonical Orthodox Churches, or Churches associated with the Union of Utrecht, include marriage in the seven sacraments. Nevertheless, there is no agreement between them regarding the minister of the sacrament, the possibility of a second marriage after divorce or clergy marriage. In recent years, tensions in individual ecclesial communities have also been exacerbated by canonical legalization of same-sex relationships. This issue concerns, in particular, the Churches whose bishops are part of the International Conference of Old Catholic Bishops. In the West European Old Catholic Churches of the Union of Utrecht there is full agreement that homosexual orientation is one of the variants of human nature. Old Catholics Theologians believe that the condemnation of homosexuality which we find in Scripture resulted from the state of knowledge at the time and related cultural connotations. They point out that modern science shows this phenomenon in a completely different perspective, based on the results of scientific research unknown to either the Biblical tradition or the Tradition of the early Church. The consequence of this was the opening of the debate on their nature and on the possibility of blessing same-sex relationships.
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