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Introduction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time of covering a distance of 1000 m on a rowing ergometer by competitors of the Academic Sports Association of the Pomeranian Medical University and to relate the achieved results to the best results from the Polish Rowing Ergometer Academic Championships. Methods. 28 rowers were tested in the 1000 m "maximum" test (1000TM/t). In addition, correlations were sought between the time and power values obtained in the 1000 TM/t with the values of selected anthropometric indices (height and weight, body mass index BMI), hand grip strength, heart rate and body composition components (free fat mass FFM, skeletal muscle mass SMM). Results. The significant correlation between the time and power output in 1000TM/t and values of FFM, SMM, handgrip strength test as well as resting HR have been observed. Conclusion. The results obtained at 1000TM/t can be considered promising for the further training stage due to the fact that the study was conducted on a rowing ergometer under training conditions prior to a special training mesocycle shaping strength and speed, while the athletes competing at the event to which our results were related were in peak competitive performance.
Content available remote Effectiveness of the Power Dry-Land Training Programmes in Youth Swimmers
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of the dry-land power training on swimming force, swimming performance and strength in youth swimmers. Twenty six male swimmers, free from injuries and training regularly at least 6 times a week, were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to one of two groups: experimental (n=14, mean age 14.0 ± 0.5 yrs, mean height 1.67±0.08 m and mean body mass 55.71 ±9.55 kg) and control (n=12, mean age 14.1 ± 0.5 yrs, mean height 1.61±0.11 m and mean body mass 49.07 ±8.25 kg). The experimental group took part in a combined swimming and dry-land power training. The control group took part in swimming training only. The training programmes in water included a dominant aerobic work in front crawl. In this research the experimental group tended to present slightly greater improvements in sprint performance. However, the stroke frequency insignificantly decreased (-4.30%, p>0.05) in the experimental group and increased (6.28%, p>0.05) in the control group. The distance per stroke insignificantly increased in the experimental group (5.98%, p>0.05) and insignificantly decreased in the control group (-5.36%, p>0.05). A significant improvement of tethered swimming force for the experimental group (9.64%, p<0.02) was found, whereas the increase was not statistically significant in the control group (2.86%, p>0.05). The main data cannot clearly state that power training allowed an enhancement in swimming performance, although a tendency to improve swimming performance in tethered swimming was noticed.
Content available remote The Effects Of Swimming And Dry-Land Resistance Training Programme On Non-Swimmers
Introduction. The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of combined swimming and dry-land resistance training on swimming force, swimming performance and strength in non-swimmers. Material and methods. Thirty male non-swimmers took part in the research. They were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: experimental (n=17) and control (n=13). The experimental group took part in combined swimming and dry-land resistance training. The control group took part in swimming training only. The swimming and dry-land resistance training programme lasted twelve weeks (48 training sessions of swimming and 36 sessions of dry-land resistance training). Average training volume and intensity were the same for all swimmers throughout the study protocol. The training programme included dominant aerobic work in front crawl. Results. Dry-land resistance training applied in the experimental group significantly improved the upper body strength. In spite of the theory that dry-land strength training is probably not specific enough to improve the sprint swim performance, the experimental group tended to demonstrate greater improvement in sprint performance. The imitation of the underwater phase of shoulder work during front crawl provided by the ergometer can be a useful training method in non-swimmers.
Content available remote Development and Validation of an Automated Step Ergometer
Laboratory ergometers have high costs, becoming inaccessible for most of the population, hence, it is imperative to develop affordable devices making evaluations like cardiorespiratory fitness feasible and easier. The objective of this study was to develop and validate an Automated Step Ergometer (ASE), adjusted according to the height of the subject, for predicting VO2max through a progressive test. The development process was comprised by three steps, the theoretical part, the prototype assembly and further validation. The ASE consists in an elevating platform that makes the step at a higher or lower level as required for testing. The ASE validation was obtained by comparing the values of predicted VO2max (equation) and direct gas analysis on the prototype and on a, treadmill. For the validation process 167 subjects with average age of 31.24 ± 14.38 years, of both genders and different degrees of cardiorespiratory fitness, were randomized and divided by gender and training condition, into untrained (n=106), active (n=24) and trained (n=37) subjects. Each participant performed a progressive test on which the ASE started at the same height (20 cm) for all. Then, according to the subject’s height, it varied to a maximum of 45 cm. Time in each stage and rhythm was chosen in accordance with training condition from lowest to highest (60-180 s; 116-160 bpm, respectively). Data was compared with the student’s t test and ANOVA; correlations were tested with Pearson’s r. The value of α was set at 0.05. No differences were found between the predicted VO2max and the direct gas analysis VO2max, nor between the ASE and treadmill VO2max (p= 0.365) with high correlation between ergometers (r= 0.974). The values for repeatability, reproducibility, and reliability of male and female groups measures were, respectively, 4.08 and 5.02; 0.50 and 1.11; 4.11 and 5.15. The values of internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) among measures were all >0.90. It was verified that the ASE prototype was appropriate for a step test, provided valid measures of VO2max and could therefore, be used as an ergometer to measure cardiorespiratory fitness.
Content available remote Measurement of Motor Fitness of Students Using the Rowing Ergometer
Purpose. The aim of the study was to develop a mathematical model to determine correlations between selected somatic traits and indoor rowing test results over a distance of 500 m as well as differences in the level of motor fitness of students of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. Material and methods. The research was carried out on a group of 274 full-time UWM students with the aid of Concept II Indoor Rower. The analysis concerned the effects of students' body weight and body height, year of study and the time required to cover the distance of 500 m during an indoor rowing test. Analysis of variance and regression analysis with stepwise elimination of the polynomial degree and form were used. Results. Only 15 subjects (5.5% of the sample) achieved the highest level of motor fitness, i.e. covered the distance under 92.7 s. A mathematical model describing the effects of decisive variables on the dependent variable was a model of regression of multiple variables of the 2nd degree. The exogenous variables were subjects' body height and body weight. Conclusions. The proposed mathematical model of regression of multiple variables of the 2nd degree can be useful for selection of individuals with predispositions to practice rowing at the academic and recreational levels. The proposed method of mathematical model development should be regarded as an algorithm for other, more versatile models involving additional variables.
In this paper, the technical data provided by the sellers of an exercise bike FALCON SG-911B SAPPHIRE have been verified. After dismantling the bike, the dimensions of the components of the transmission of motion were measured and the mass parameters of the flywheel were set. In order to increase the mass moment of inertia reduced to an axis of the crankshaft, construction changes were proposed. The values of the braking torque of the magnetic brake at subsequent resistance levels were measured. The cycling test was performed and the distance, calories burned and heart rate read from the counter were verified computationally.
Kruk. В., Szczypaczewska M., Opaszowski В., Kaciuba Uściłko H., Nazar K. Thermoregulatory and metabolic responses to repeated bouts of prolonged cycle-ergometer exercise in man. Acta Physiol. Pol., Changes in body temperature, oxygen uptake (VO₂ ), heart rate (HR), sweating rate and plasma osmolality were examined in 10 human subjects, performing four successive 30 min exercise-bouts of the same intensity (50% VO₂ max) separated by 30 min rest periods. In spite of the rest intervals and replacement of body fluid loss there was a progressive increase in VO₂ . HR, rectal (Tre) and mean body (Tb) temperatures in consecutive exercise bouts. The thermoregulatory efficiency showed an increasing tendency, and a delay in the sweating response at the beginning of each exercise was shortened. It is concluded that a drift in metabolic and temperature responses to exercise, reported throughout a long-term continuous work, occurs also in the euhydrated subjects performing a prolonged intermittent exercise. It is not caused by an impaired thermoregulation during exercise but rather by insufficient restitution of metabolic processes during rest intervals.
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