Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2013 | 34 | 3 | 236-241
Tytuł artykułu

The role of facial hair in women's perceptions of men's attractiveness, health, masculinity and parenting abilities

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
Facial hair strongly influences people's judgments of men's socio-sexual attributes. However, the nature of these judgments is often contradictory. The levels of intermediate facial hair growth presented to raters and the stage of female raters' menstrual cycles might have influenced past findings. We quantified men's and women's judgments of attractiveness, health, masculinity and parenting abilities for photographs of men who were clean-shaven, lightly or heavily stubbled and fully bearded. We also tested the effect of the menstrual cycle and hormonal contraceptive use on women's ratings. Women judged faces with heavy stubble as most attractive and heavy beards, light stubble and clean-shaven faces as similarly less attractive. In contrast, men rated full beards and heavy stubble as most attractive, followed closely by clean-shaven and light stubble as least attractive. Men and women rated full beards highest for parenting ability and healthiness. Masculinity ratings increased linearly as facial hair increased, and this effect was more pronounced in women in the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle, although attractiveness ratings did not differ according to fertility. Our findings confirm that beardedness affects judgments of male socio-sexual attributes and suggest that an intermediate level of beardedness is most attractive while full-bearded men may be perceived as better fathers who could protect and invest in offspring.
Słowa kluczowe
Opis fizyczny
  • 1. Archer, J., "Does sexual selection explain human sex differences in aggression?", The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, vol. 32, 2009, p.249-266
  • 2. Addison, W.E., "Beardedness as a factor in perceived masculinity", Perceptual and Motor Skills, vol. 68, 1989, p.921-922
  • 3. Barber, N., "Mustache fashion covaries with a good marriage market for women", Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, vol. 25, 2001, p.261-272
  • 4. Boothroyd, L.G.& Jones, B.C.& Burt, D.M.& DeBruine, L.M.& Perrett, D.I., "Facial correlates of sociosexuality", Evolution and Human Behavior, vol. 29, 2008, p.211-218
  • 5. Brooks, R.& Scott, I.M.& Maklakov, A.A.& Kasumovic, M.M.& Clark, A.P.& Penton-Voak, I.S., "National income inequality predicts women's preferences for masculinized faces better than health does", Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 278, 2011, p.810-812
  • 6. Buss, D.M., "Sex differences in human mate preferences: Evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures", The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, vol. 12, 1989, p.1-14
  • 7. DeBruine, L.M.& Jones, B.C.& Crawford, J.R.& Welling, L.L.M.& Little, A.C., "The health of a nation predicts their mate preferences: Cross-cultural variation in women's preferences for masculinized male faces", Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 277, 2010, p.2405-2410
  • 8. Dixson, B.J.& Vasey, P.L., "Beards augment perceptions of men's age, social status, and aggressiveness, but not attractiveness", Behavioral Ecology, vol. 23, 2012, p.481-490
  • 9. Dixson, B.J.& Tam, J.C.& Awasthy, M., "Do women's preferences for men's facial hair change with reproductive status?", Behavioral Ecology, 2012, p.1-9
  • 10. Ekman, P.& Friesen, W.V.& Hager, J.C., Facial action coding system, 2002
  • 11. Fehring, R.J.& Schneider, M.& Raviele, K., "Variability in the phases of the menstrual cycle", Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, vol. 35, 2006, p.376-384
  • 12. Feinman, S.& Gill, G.W., "Females' response to males' beardedness", Perceptual and Motor Skills, vol. 44, 1977, p.533-534
  • 13. Gangestad, S.W.& Thornhill, R., "Human oestrus", Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 275, 2008, p.991-1000
  • 14. Hatfield, E.& Sprecher, S., "Mirror, mirror: The importance of looks in everyday life", 1986
  • 15. Hellström, Å.& Tekle, J., "Person perception through facial photographs: Effects of glasses, hair, and beard on judgments of occupation and personal qualities", European Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 24, 1994, p.693-705
  • 16. Kenny, C.T.& Fletcher, D., "Effects of beardedness on person perception", Perceptual and Motor Skills, vol. 37, 1973, p.413-414
  • 17. Kruger, D.J., "Male facial masculinity influences attributions of personality and reproductive strategy", Personal Relationships, vol. 13, 2006, p.451-463
  • 18. Little, A.C.& Jones, B.C.& DeBruine, L.M., "Preferences for variation in masculinity in real male faces change across the menstrual cycle: Women prefer more masculine faces when they are more fertile", Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 45, 2008, p.478-482
  • 19. Little, A.C.& Connely, J.& Feinberg, D.R.& Jones, B.C.& Roberts, S.C., "Human preference for masculinity differs according to context in faces, bodies, voices, and smell", Behavioral Ecology, vol. 22, 2011, p.862-868
  • 20. Muscarella, F.& Cunningham, M.R., "The evolutionary significance and social perception of male pattern baldness and facial hair", Ethology and Sociobiology, vol. 17, 1996, p.99-117
  • 21. Neave, N.& Shields, K., "The effects of facial hair manipulation on female perceptions of attractiveness, masculinity, and dominance in male faces", Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 45, 2008, p.373-377
  • 22. Otta, E.& Abrosio, F.F.E.& Hoshino, R.L., "Reading a smiling face: Messages conveyed by various forms of smiling", Perceptual and Motor Skills, vol. 82, 1996, p.1111-1121
  • 23. Pellegrini, R.J., "Impressions of the male personality as a function of beardedness", Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior, vol. 10, 1973, p.29-33
  • 24. Penton-Voak, I.S.& Perrett, D.I.& Castles, D.L.& Kobayashi, T.& Burt, D.M.& Murray, L.K.& Minamisawa, R., "Menstrual cycle alters face preference", Nature, vol. 399, 1999, p.741-742
  • 25. Perrett, D.I.& Lee, K.J.& Penton-Voak, I.& Rowland, D.& Yoshikawa, S.& Burt, D.M.& Henzi, S.P.& Castles, D.L.& Akamatsu, S., "Effects of sexual dimorphism on facial attractiveness", Nature, vol. 394, 1998, p.884-887
  • 26. Randall, V.A., "Androgens and hair growth", Dermatologic Therapy, vol. 21, 2008, p.314-328
  • 27. Rantala, M.J.& Moore, F.R.& Skrinda, I.& Krama, T.& Kivleniece, I.& Kecko, S.& Krams, I., "Evidence for the stress-linked immunocompetence handicap hypothesis in humans", Nature Communications, vol. 3, 2012, p.694
  • 28. Reed, J.A.& Blunk, E.M., "The influence of facial hair on impression formation", Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, vol. 18, 1990, p.169-175
  • 29. Rhodes, G., "The evolutionary psychology of facial beauty", Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 57, 2006, p.199-226
  • 30. Rhodes, G.& Simmons, L.W.& Peters, M., "Attractiveness and sexual behavior: Does attractiveness enhance mating success?", Evolution and Human Behavior, vol. 26, 2005, p.186-201
  • 31. Roberts, S.C.& Owen, R.C.& Havlicek, J., "Distinguishing between perceiver and wearer effects in clothing color-associated attributions", Evolutionary Psychology, vol. 8, 2010, p.350-364
  • 32. Robinson, D.E., "Fashions in shaving and trimming of the beard: The men of the Illustrated London News, 1842–1972", The American Journal of Sociology, vol. 81, 1976, p.1133-1141
  • 33. Small, C.M.& Manatunga, A.K.& Marcus, M., "Validity of self-reported menstrual cycle length", Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 17, 2007, p.163-170
  • 34. Snyder, J.K.& Fessler, D.M.T.& Tiokhin, L.& Frederick, D.A.& Lee, S.W.& Navarrete, C.D., "Trade-offs in a dangerous world: Women's fear of crime predicts preferences for aggressive and formidable mates", Evolution and Human Behavior, vol. 32, 2011, p.127-137
  • 35. Thornhill, R.& Gangestad, S.W., "Facial sexual dimorphism, developmental stability, and susceptibility to disease in men and women", Evolution and Human Behavior, vol. 27, 2006, p.131-144
  • 36. Wogalter, M.S.& Hosie, J.A., "Effects of cranial and facial hair on perceptions of age and person", Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 131, 1991, p.589-591
  • 37. Wood, D.R., "Self-perceived masculinity between bearded and nonbearded males", Perceptual and Motor Skills, vol. 62, 1986, p.769-770
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.