State Aid for Research, Development and Innovation in the European Union Competition Policy
The aim of this paper is to present legal and economic aspects of granting state aid for research, development and innovation activities of enterprises in the European Union. The principles on acceptability of state aid in the light of the EU competition policy were discussed. The analysis involved the value, structure and trends in aid granted for mentioned purpose in Member States. Another issue concerned the lack of correlation between the value of aid granted for research and development activity and results achieved in the EU Member States in the field of innovation. The author focused also on the number of decisions taken by the European Commission regarding particular objectives, programs and Member States in which the aid for research, development and innovation was implemented. The theoretical information were derived from selected analytical and strategic elaborations, documents and reports. The empirical data gathered mainly from Directorate General for Competition of the European Commission and from the Eurostat base. (original abstract)
- Ali-Yrkkö J., Impact of public R&D financing on employment, "The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy Discussion Paper", No. 980/2005.
- Community framework for state aid for research and development and innovation, "Official Journal of the EU", C 323, 30.12.2006.
- Consolidated version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, "Official Journal of the EU", C 115, 9.5.2008.
- European Commission, Commission launches new innovation indicator, http://europa. eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-831_en.htm (30.09.2013).
- European Commission, Europe 2020. A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, COM(2010) 2020 final, Brussels 2010.
- European Commission, Facts and figures on state aid in the EU Member States. Staff working paper, SEC(2011) 1487 final, Brussels 2011.
- European Commission, Innovation Union Scoreboard 2011. Research and Innovation Union Scoreboard, Brussels 2012.
- European Commission, Investing in research: an action plan for Europe, Brussels 2003.
- European Commission, Report on state aid contribution to Europe 2020 Strategy. Spring 2011 update, Brussels 2011.
- European Commission, Scoreboard - data on state aid expenditure, http://ec.europa.eu/ competition/state_aid/studies_reports/expenditure.html (30.09.2013).
- Giebe T., Grebe T., Wolfstetter E., How to allocate R&D (and other) subsidies: An experimentally tested policy recommendation, "Research Policy", Vol. 35/2006.
- Kąkol M, Uzasadnienie ekonomiczne wspierania przedsiębiorstw ze środków publicznych - ocena efektywności gospodarczej, [in:] M. Krasnodębska-Tomkiel (ed.), Zmiany w polityce konkurencji na przestrzeni dwóch ostatnich dekad, UOKiK, Warszawa 2010.
- Kaupa C., The More Economic Approach - a Reform based on Ideology, "European State Aid Law Quarterly", No. 3/2009.
- Keynes J., The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, London 1967.
- Mankiw G., Taylor M.P., Economics, Thomson Learning, London 2006.
- Nitsche R., Heidheus P., Study on methods to analyse the impact of state aid on competition, "European Economy. Economic Papers", No. 244/2006.
- Peeperkorn L., Dynamic Welfare Analysis of Market Power, [in:] J. Faull, A. Nickpay (eds), The EC Law of Competition, Oxford University Press 1999.
- Piekkola H., Public funding of R&D and growth: Firm-level evidence from Finland, "Economics of Innovation and New Technology", Vol. 16, Issue 3/2007, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10438590600661897.
- Stiglitz J.E., Ekonomia sektora publicznego, PWN, Warszawa 2004.
- Toivanen O., Innovation and research policies: two case studies of R&D subsidies, "EIB Papers", Vol. 11, No. 2/2006.
- Commission Regulation (EC) No 800/2008 of 6.8.2008 declaring certain categories of aid compatible with the common market in application of Article 87 and 88 of the Treaty, Official Journal of the EU, L 214, 9.8.2008.
- Eurostat, http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu (30.09.2013).