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1997 | nr 4 | 497-519
Tytuł artykułu

Geneza transformacji ustrojowej

Warianty tytułu
The Roots of Transformation of the System
Języki publikacji
The author has undertaken an attempt to analyze the process of formation and transformation of the socialist system and the main characteristics of the evolution of capitalism, that together contributed to the transition from their mutual confrontation and hostility to the transformation of the system. The author's thesis is that it never happened in the past that the reality failed so much to meet the projected future as it has been the case of the idea of socialism. Both objective (pressure of reality) and subjective (arbitrariness of the Bolshevik party) factors contributed to that outcome. The centralized command system, the introduction of which in Russia had been dictated by its extreme socio-economic, civilizational and political underdevelopment, was recognized to be an inherent feature of the socialist system. After the World War II, the imposition of the Soviet economic model on the Central European countries, whose degree of development was superior to that of Russia, aggravated the existing contradictions and caused the command system to reveal its inefficiency. Attempts to reform the system, which were undertaken as early as in mid-fifties, were all constrained, as the almost thirty year long experience has shown, for ideological and political reasons. Attempts to create an efficient system of functioning of the economy using the market mechanism, collided with inviolable principles of socialism (domination of social property of the means of production, full employment, social justice, central planning). It is the Polish reform, that was undertaken in the early eighties under the banner of self-government, self-determination and self-financing of enterprises, and later, at its second stage, under that of a pluralist system of property, development of private entrepreneurship liberalization of the economy and establishment of a moder market economy, which contributed to the ultimate break of thatr system. (original abstract)
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