2004 | 174 Regulacyjne aspekty polityki ekonomicznej - dostosowania polskiej gospodarki do europejskiego i globalnego rynku | 415-434
Doświadczenia Unii Europejskiej w liberalizowaniu krajowych rynków energii elektrycznej i gazu
Experience of the European Union in Liberalising Domestic Electric Enegry and Gas Markets
Stworzenie jednolitego rynku energii elektrycznej i gazu wymaga przede wszystkim ustanowienia przejrzystych i przewidywalnych reguł prawnych. W pracy omówiono początki i zaawansowanie procesu liberalizacji rynku rozpoczętego od dyrektywy dotyczącej wspólnych zasad wewnętrznego rynku elektroenergetycznego nr 96/92/EC oraz dyrektywy w sprawie wspólnych zasad wewnętrznego rynku gazu 98/30/EC.
It became necessary to liberalise or introduce competition principles to the electric energy and gas sectors due to their organisational form (monopolies) and burdens carried by their customers. Generally speaking, the liberalisation process in most EU countries was commenced when the directive concerning common principles governing the internal electricity market No. 96/92/EC and the directive concerning common principles of the internal gas market No. 98/30/EC were adopted. The directives regulated, in particular, such issues as transmission, distribution and trade in electric energy and gas, principles of organisation of sectors, a principle of access to the market (negotiated access to the system, regulated access to the system, and the ‘single buyer’ model), rights and duties of distribution systems operators. The directives introduced a principle of gradual opening of markets, however, some member countries decided to accept considerably bigger quantities in comparison with those specified in the directives. Implementation of provisions contained in the directives released a downward trend in dynamics of electric energy and gas prices in most member countries. Despite it the introduction of competition rules to these sectors comes across difficulties. It is due not only to technical barriers (lack of a sufficient number of cross-border links) but also, for instance, to the fact that electric energy and gas are treated as goods the access to which should be guaranteed for all those interested in it. An additional problem is also the cost of access to a network, level and differentiation of transmission charges (post stamp model, distance charges, zone payments) in particular countries, which leads to the pancaking of transmission charges. It should be noted that liberalisation brings about major changes in economic situation of particular companies operating in the market of electric energy and gas, which involves their restructuring and primarily reduction of employment in these sectors. The liberalisation process is spread over years and necessitates numerous adjustments in organisational and legal fields. Its expression is a cycle of regulators’ meetings focussed on assessing steps taken by the member countries.(original abstract)