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2012 | 3(21) | 298-307
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Kształtowanie polskiego modelu cywilnych służb specjalnych w latach 1989-1990

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The beginning of civil secret service formation is considered to be in 1989. The transformation began after the elections in June, 1989 and an attempt to adjust security apparatus to the standards of a democratic country was made. At that time the idea of civil supervision over the first secret service institution (Office for State Protection) appeared. This regulation was formalized by an act issued on 6 April, 1990 concerning Office for State Protection. Under the Law of 6 April 1990 on the Office for State Protection Security Service of the Ministry of Interior (polish acronym SB) was abolished and the State Security Office was established (polish acronym UOP). The new intelligence service was supposed to have a structure which would allow it to function properly within the democratic state. Also tasks and powers of the UOP had to be modified. Finally, the activity of a new intelligence service was subject to oversight and control by state institutions entrusted with proper powers. The first step of such profound changes was supposed to be the enactment of new laws. In this article, organizational structures, functions and powers of the SB and the UOP were compared. This makes it possible to point out the differences in the status of a new intelligence service. Legislative changes made in 1989-1990 had two priorities. First, they were supposed to give a legal basis for the organizational and functional separation of the Police of the UOP. Secondly, the various provisions of the Act were supposed to be formal and legal guarantee against the politicization of this service.
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  • Uniwersytet Jagielloński
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