ЗМІСТ І ФОРМИ КРАЄЗНАВЧОЇ РОБОТИ ЗАГАЛЬНООСВІТНІХ ШКІЛ СУМЩИНИ У 20-ті рр. ХХ ст.
The content and form of regional studies of Sumy secondary schools in the 20-ies of the twentieth century
In the article it is found out that from the beginning of the 1920-s the meaning of local history in Sumy region schools was determined in accordance with the regulations, which were developed by the central Soviet authorities. The main source of guidance on educational institutions have become annual special «advisers on social education» and comprehensive programmes. The approaches, principles and content requirements for regional studies of schools outlined in the introduction of the government regulations, more specific plans of the local education authorities. Preferably the curriculum topics had industrial and regional character. It was stressed that the local education authorities created different kinds of the textbooks, which also served as the carrier content of local history. These publications contributed to the improvement of teaching at school, because it combined both educational and developmental functions. But the teachers of Sumy region failed to create localized tutorials that would meet the full content of education. Regional literature that appeared not always consistent with the principles of scientific, systematic and sequence of the learning process. Besides selected in these publications local material poorly coordinated with educational programs. The formation of the Soviet school in the 20-ies of the twentieth century was accompanied not only by changes in the content of education, but also the search of new approaches to organizational forms of teaching. In order to overcome inherent in prior learning patterns and disadvantages the schools tried to move away from the class-task system and replace it with active learning. The regional excursions are considered as one of the alternatives of the lesson. At the end of the 1920-s the attempts to implement such active learning as design problems were made at the schools of Sumshchyna. Extracurricular forms of local lore developed actively on the territory of the Sumy region in the study period. In particular, the article examines the activities of local history groups in secondary schools.