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2013 | 1(5) | 253-266
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Gry planszowe Wikingów – rekonstrukcja gier planszowych na przykładzie hnefatafl

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VIKING’S BOARD GAMES – RECONSTRUCTION OF BOARD GAMES ON THE EXAMPLE OF HNEFATAFL
Języki publikacji
PL
Abstrakty
EN
Although they are mentioned in sagas and often shown on rune stones, old board games are a big challenge for researchers trying to answer questions about their actual rules. Exhibiting the remains of such a board game in a cabinet at a museum makes it a static object, not a socially functioning cultural component. It is harder to say how a particular game was played in the past (e.g., what elements and strategies were necessary), as well as to determine if the social prestige of that game was similar to, say, that of chess in later times. There is always a dilemma: whether we are able to reconstruct the rules or just to create a potential, not easily verifiable game image which is based on chronologically later principles. The article is devoted in particular to the reconstruction of the most prestigious of board games in Viking Scandinavia – hnefatafl. Boards and iconic presentations of this game are found in the whole area of Scandinavian influence and contacts, from the British Isles to the shores of the Baltic Sea. The game, known probably from the fifth century AD, was very popular in the whole Viking area, and only with the spread of chess did it lose its preeminence as “the game of kings”. However, this was not the end of its career, because, for instance, the first purely European chess set, the so-called Lewis Chessmen, was most likely also a set for playing hnefatafl. The rules of hnefatafl were reconstructed using the game rules from the eighteenth-century diary of Carl Linnaeus. This raises numerous questions concerning the credibility of the rules which are applied when hnefatafl is played today.
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253-266
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article
Twórcy
  • Michał Sołtysiak, Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, Katedra Teorii i Metod w Archeologii, Instytut Prahistorii, ul. Św. Marcin 78, 61-809 Poznań, Poland, mjksol@gmail.com
  • Michał Sołtysiak, Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, Katedra Teorii i Metod w Archeologii, Instytut Prahistorii, ul. Św. Marcin 78, 61-809 Poznań, Poland
Bibliografia
  • Batey, C., Clarke, H., Page, R.I., Price, N.S. (1998). Wielkie kultury świata. Wikingowie. Warszawa: Świat Książki.
  • Bell, R.C. (2010). Board and Table Games from Many Civilizations. Dover: Dover Publications.
  • Caldwell, D.H., Hall, M.A., Wilkinson C.M. (2010). Lewis Chessmen Unmasked. Glasgow: National Museums Of Scotland.
  • Eales, R. (1985). Chess: History of the Game. New York: Hardinge Simpole Limited.
  • Filipowiak, W. (1997). Some aspects of development of Wolin in 8th-11th centuries in the light of the results of new research. W: P. Urbańczyk (red.), Origins of Central Europe (s. 47–74). Warsaw: Scientific Society of Polish Archaeologists, Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology Polish Academy of Sciences.
  • Gordon, E.V. (red). (1957). An Introduction to Old Norse. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Helmfrid, S. (2005). Hnefatafl – the Strategic Board Game of the Vikings. Online: <http://www.hem.bredband.net/b512479/Hnefatafl_by_Sten_Helmfrid.pdf>.
  • Hencken, H.O. (1933). Ballindery Cranog. Acta Archaeologica, 4, 103–239.
  • Hingston, P. (2007). Evolving Players for an Ancient Game: Hnefatafl. Materiały z IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Games, 2007. Honolulu. Online: <http://ro.ecu.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5968&context=ecuworks>.
  • Hodges, R. (2001). Dark Ages Economics. The origins of towns and trade A.D. 600-1000. London: Bristol Classical Press.
  • Huizinga, J. (2007). Homo ludens. Zabawa jako źródło kultury (tłum. M. Kurecka, W. Wirpsza). Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Aletheia.
  • Linnaeus, C. (1811). Lachesis Lapponica. London: White and Cochrane.
  • Murray, H.J.R. (1952). A history of Board Games other than Chess. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Piccione, P.A. (1980). In Search of the Meaning of Senet. Archaeology, 7/8, 55–58.
  • Roesdahl, E. (2001). Historia wikingów. Warszawa: Marabut.
  • Simpson, W.G. (1972). A Gaming Board of Ballinderry-Type from Knockanboy, Derrykeighan, Co. Antrim. Ulster Journal of Archaeology, Third Series, 35, 63–64.
  • Trubshaw, B. (1996). The Fifth Direction Sacred centres in Ireland. At the Edge, 2. Online: <http://www.indigogroup.co.uk/edge/5dirns.htm>.
  • Walker, D. (2007). Reconstructing Hnefatafl. A Series of Four Articles. Online: <www.tafl.cyningstan.org.uk/files/recon-draft.pdf>.
  • Yalom, M. (2004). Birth Of The Chess Queen. Londyn: Rivers Oram Press.
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Bibliografia
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