Names of bee-hives in the dialects of Latvian
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The article deals with names of bee-hives, their origin and distribution in the dialects of Latvian. As far as the first bee-hives were in the hollowed out trees the appellative (bisu) 'kuoks' (bee tree) probably reflects the more ancient meaning of this word. (bisu) 'kuoks' is widespread throughout Latvia. The next stage of development in the bee-keeping were so called block-hives. Their names in the dialects of Latvian are: 'auls', 'avelis', 'avilis', 'blukis', 'gulinis', 'klucis', 'kuozavs', ('gulins') 'kuozuls', 'pulcinis', 'struops', 'truops'. Nevertheless, these names are used to denote modern up-to-date bee-hives which sometimes are called 'skapitis' (locker), 'majina' (a little house). The appellative (bisu) 'struops' being a word of Standard Latvian is widespread throughout Latvia. It is used in Latgale, too, although in some subdialects it has penetrated under the influence of Standard Latvian. The wariant 'truops' occures mainly in the Eastern part of Latvia (in Vidzeme and in a little compact area in the Eastern part of Latgale). The apellatives 'auls', 'aulis' are registered in some vernaculars of Kurzeme and Vidzeme, the variations 'avelis' and 'avilis' are common mainly in Southern and Western Latgale as far as in Selonian vernaculars of Zemgale. The name 'pulcinis' is known mainly in some Western subdialects of Latgale. German lanword 'klucis' is common mainly in Western part of Latvia, 'blukis' - in Eastern regions of Latvia. The Slavic loanword 'kuozavs' and its wariant 'kuozuls' is widespread in the Central and Northen area. Other variant names of Slavic origin are rare: 'domiks', 'kaloda', 'lezaks'. The names of bee-hives reflect the development and change of the meaning of the words. The examined material allows a conclusion that the names of bee-hives are mostly of Indo-european and Baltic origin, although some borrowings from Slavonic languages occur. Words of German origin are rare.
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