HEALTH CARE REFORM IN THE WORLD - PROBLEMS, DIRECTIONS OF CHANGES (Reformy systemu ochrony zdrowia na swiecie - problemy, kierunki zmian)
Health care financing becomes important problem for many countries in the world, not only the poor, but also the richest ones. The most important reasons are: demographic & labor market changes, technological progress in diagnostics and therapy of sickness. Many countries try to perform changes of their systems aimed at providing high level of medical services for their citizens. The changes in question meet with numerous difficulties and depend on condition and degree of socio-economic development. These processes have been initiated in Europe over 20 year ago, but still public financing dominates in European systems. Governments of countries in western Europe have greater influence on healtcare policy in comparison with United States. There are many directions of changes in health care: evolution of institutions overseeing medical services, co-payment as additional funding in system of public health and privatization. Another very important problem is a jump of cost of modern medical technology, particularly, cost of medicines. Refund of medicines' costs represent high percentage of all medical expenses. Very interesting are experiences in translation of health care reform in Germany and United States. Americans spent on health care approximately $2,2 trillion in 2007, or $7,421 per person. This amounts to 16,2% of GDP, nearly twice the average of other developed nations. Health care costs in USA are projected.
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