METROPOLIS, ‘CAPITAL OF THE NATION' AND THE HISPANIDAD CENTRE. MADRID ARCHITECTURE 1850-1975 (Metropolia, ‘stolica narodu' i centrum hispanidad. Architektura Madrytu 1850-1975)
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The beginnings of the process that transformed Madrid into a modern city should be looked for in the mid-19th century. The stimulus to rebuild and modernize the city was provided by the renovation of Paris (from 1852) and Vienna (from 1857). Madrid's representative buildings of the second half of the 19th century were modeled on the official state architecture of the French Second Empire, but also on the monumental buildings of the Viennese Ring. The turn of the 19th century brought about new trends into Madrid's architecture. We can find in the city many interesting examples of Art Nouveau. 1910. At that time Spanish architectural community discussed the problem of national style. At the beginning of the 1910s the most popular national style was regionalism. A new ‘Spanish style' was to be built on the basis of the old, traditional local forms from individual Spanish regions, often combined together. The renovation of the city's centre and the creation of its new image were especially intense in 1915-1921, so, in the period of economic boom which Spain owed to its neutrality during the Great World War. To the early 1930s the centres of large Spanish cities were dominated by academic Classicism and Neo-Baroque. The architecture of Madrid of the 1940s was dominated by two trends: strong influences of fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, and historicising Neo-Herrerian style. In the mid-1950s Spain saw a liberalisation in culture after the Franco's state had ‘opened to the world'. Modern forms were more and more courageously introduced in architecture. The activity of urban planners of 1955-1975 resulted in numerous disadvantageous changes both in the city's centre and its outskirts.
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