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2023 | 2 | 80--88
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Space Terrorism: A Historical Study

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The rationale behind this article is to address a critical gap in research: the evolving threat of space terrorism. As space assets increasingly become integral components of both civilian and military security systems, their vulnerability to attacks escalates. The democratization of space weaponry, including advanced cyber technologies, signals an escalating risk to these space assets and their terrestrial infrastructure. This threat extends beyond traditional space powers to include non-state actors, such as terrorist individuals and groups or various proxy forces, who were previously considered marginal threats. This paper aims to lay a foundational framework by providing a historical overview of terrorism and security incidents involving outer space assets, their cyber systems, and ground support structures. This compilation serves as a basis for a deeper, methodological, and systematic examination of the nature and implications of space terrorism. In order to define the initial concept of space terrorism, this paper draws on an extensive literature review. The selection of security breach cases within the broad spectrum of the space sector was guided by their novelty, diversity, and relevance, offering insights into the emerging phenomenon of space terrorism.
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Tom
2
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80--88
Opis fizyczny
Bibliogr. 47 poz.
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Bibliografia
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  • 15. Department of the Air Force. (2003). Comprehensive Strategy for the Space Force (Report to Congressional Committees). U.S. Department of the Air Force. https://www.spaceforce.mil/Portals/2/Documents/Space%20Policy/CRR-FY23-Comprehensive-Strategy-Space%20Force-15-Aug-23.pdf
  • 16. Epstein, K., & Elgin, B. (2008). Network Security Breaches Plague NASA. Business Week. www.businessweek.com/print/magazine/content/08_48/b4110072404167
  • 17. Ewalt, D. (2013, March 18). The Tale of Captain Midnight, TV Hacker And Folk Hero. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/davidewalt/2013/03/18/the-tale-of-captain-midnight-tv-hacker-and-folk-hero/#286308a41053
  • 18. Forester, T., & Morrison, P. (2007). Hacking and Viruses. In K. E. Himma (Ed.), Internet Security: Hacking, Counterhacking and Society (pp. 3–28). Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
  • 19. France24 (2023, October 5). Chinese firm sold satellites for intelligence to Russia's Wagner: contract. France24. https://www.france24.com/en/live-news/20231005-chinese-firm-sold-satellites-for-intelligence-to-russia-s-wagner-contract
  • 20. Freedberg, S. J., Jr. (2015, December 2). US Jammed Own Satellites 261 Times; What If Enemy Did? Breaking Defense. https://breakingdefense.com/2015/12/us-jammed-own-satellites-261-times-in-2015-what-if-an-enemy-tried/
  • 21. Gorman, S., Dreazen, Y. J., & Cole, A. (2009, December 17). Insurgents Hack U.S. Drones. The Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB126102247889095011
  • 22. Grossman, L. (1999, March 1). Did Hackers Hijack a British Military Satellite? Time. https://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,20673,00.html
  • 23. Harrison, T., Cooper, Z., Johnson, K., & Roberts, T. G. (2017). Escalation and Deterrence In the Second Space Age. Center for Strategic and International Studies. https://csis-website-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/publication/171109_Harrison_EscalationDeterrenceSecondSpaceAge.pdf
  • 24. Harrison, T., Johnson, K., & Roberts, T. G. (2018). Space Threat Assessment: A Report of the CSIS Aerospace Security Project 2018. Center for Strategic and International Studies. https://aerospace.csis.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Harrison_SpaceThreatAssessment_FULL_WEB.pdf#page=18
  • 25. IODA [@IODA_live] (2023, June 29). Follow the JSC Dozor-Teleport AS41942) outage in near realtime using IODA's dashboard. [Post]. X. https://twitter.com/IODA_live/status/1674436879046029314
  • 26. Jayawardhana, W. (2007, April 13). Intelsat to turn off LTTE beam: Tigers’ satellite piracy bared. Daily News – Sri Lanka. http://www.dailynews.lk/2007/04/13/news01.asp
  • 27. Jordan, J. (2020). International Competition Below the Threshold of War: Toward a Theory of Gray Zone Conflict. Journal of Strategic Security, 14(1), 1–24. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26999974
  • 28. Kessler, D. J., & Cour-Palais, B. G. (1978). Collision Frequency of Artificial Satellites: The Creation of a Debris Belt. Journal of Geophysical Research, 83(A6), 2637–46.
  • 29. Laqueur, W. (2003). No End to War: Terrorism in the Twenty-first Century. Continuum.
  • 30. Leyden, J. (2014, July 15). Hamas hacks Israeli TV sat channel to broadcast pics of Gaza wounded. The Register. https://www.theregister.com/2014/07/15/hamas_hack_israeli_sat_tv/
  • 31. Madory, D. [@DougMadory]. (2023, June 29). We can confirm that Russian satellite operator Dozor Teleport (AS41942) left the global routing table at about 02:00 UTC earlier today. [Post]. X. https://twitter.com/DougMadory/status/1674437865499947009
  • 32. Manulis, M., Bridges, C. P., Harrison, R., Sekar, V., & Davis, A. (2021). Cyber security in New Space: Analysis of threats, key enabling technologies and challenges. International Journal of Information Security, 20, 287–311. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10207-020-00503-w
  • 33. McCoy, J. J. (2007, April 27). Intelsat Shuts Down Transponder Hijacked By Terrorists. Satellite Today (Via Satellite). https://www.satellitetoday.com/uncategorized/2007/04/26/intelsat-shuts-down-transponder-hijacked-by-terrorists/
  • 34. Mehmoodi, A., & Ahmed, S. (2021). Terrorism in Space: A Possibility. CISS Insight, 9(1), 90–109.
  • 35. NATO. (2023). NATO’s Approach to Space. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization. https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/topics_175419.htm
  • 36. Nelson, A. J. & Epstein, G. L. (2022). The PLA’s Strategic Support Force and AI Innovation. Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/articles/the-plas-strategic-support-force-and-ai-innovation-china-military-tech/
  • 37. NetBlocks [@netblocks] (2023, June 29). Confirmed: Metrics show a disruption to satellite internet provider Dozor-Teleport which supplies Russia's FSB, Gazprom, Rosatom and military installations. [Post]. X. https://twitter.com/netblocks/status/1674447946689986561
  • 38. PBS Frontline. (2000). Interview: anonymous. PBS Frontline. https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/hackers/interviews/anon.html
  • 39. Petkauskas, V. (2023, November 15). We breached Russian satellite network, say pro-Ukraine partisans. Cybernews. https://cybernews.com/cyber-war/we-breached-russian-satellite-network-say-pro-ukraine-partisans/
  • 40. Rausch, H. (2006, April). Jamming Commercial Satellite Communications During Wartime: An Empirical Study. Proceedings of the Fourth IEEE International Workshop on Information Assurance. IEEE Satellite.
  • 41. Reuters (2022, March 2). Russia space agency head says satellite hacking would justify war -report. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/world/russia-space-agency-head-says-satellite-hacking-would-justify-war-report-2022-03-02/
  • 42. Schlom, D. (2001). Target America 1972: When Terrorists Threatened Apollo – An Untold Story of Apollo 17. Ad Astra, (November/December 2001), 20–24.
  • 43. Schwartz, N. A., Williamsen, J. E., Heagy, J. F., & Moeller, R. A. (2021). Orbital Debris and Kinetic Anti-satellite Concerns: How a “Kessler Syndrome” Threatens U.S. Use of Space Assets. Institute for Defense Analyses. http://www.jstor.org/stable/resrep30922
  • 44. Stout, D. (1998, April 22). Pentagon Acknowledges Hacker Intrusion Into a Computer System. The New York Times.
  • 45. Swinhoe, D. (2023, June 30). Russian satellite comms firm Dozer taken offline by Wagner-affiliated hacker group – report. Data Center Dynamics. https://www.datacenterdynamics.com/en/news/russian-satellite-comms-firm-dozer-taken-offline-by-wagner-affiliated-hacker-group-report/
  • 46. Telegraph. (1999, March 4). British hackers attack MoD satellite. The Telegraph. https://web.archive.org/web/20070510032306/http://www.telegraph.co.uk/connected/main.jhtml?xml=/connected/1999/03/04/ecnhack04.xml
  • 47. Yale Daily News. (1998, April 23). Hackers break into Pentagon system. The Yale Daily News.
Uwagi
Opracowanie rekordu ze środków MNiSW, umowa nr SONP/SP/546092/2022 w ramach programu "Społeczna odpowiedzialność nauki" - moduł: Popularyzacja nauki i promocja sportu (2024).
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
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Identyfikator YADDA
bwmeta1.element.baztech-cf9f3c75-1258-4767-88b5-e31f610ab8a5
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