Project of a functional model of electricity market in the Slovak Republic
XI Forum Energetyków GRE 2008/Międzynarodowa Konferencja Naukowo-Techniczna(19-21.05.2008;Orle Gniazdo Szczyrk, Polska)
The contribution deals with defining a model market and it shows activities among all the market participants, transmission system, operator, settlement of deviation and potential market operators. The solution of fundamental conditions is based on the analysis of market models in neighbouring countries (in the CEE region), but also in other countries in Europe. The contribution brings a description of the most important SEPS/CEPS profile. Furthermore, there are mentioned possible ways of effective analysis defining the model market with the description of relations among market participants, transmission system operators, settlement of differences between market operators. The development of production and distribution of electricity these days increasingly requires reinterpretation of current attitude of society to energy use, energy sources and energy distribution. It is obvious that there is a constant deficit of primary sources, which are an important part of energy economy in EU countries as well as in other countries all over the world. Constant growth of consumption, increasing prices and unstable situation in the areas of their extraction determine further development in energy policy. EU and OECD states, as well as other leading states of the world are fully aware of the problems ahead. Their energy policy is more and more focused on lower dependence on import of primary energy sources, on more efficient energy production, lower losses in transmission lines, but, above all, on motivating consumers to more rational use of energy. To prevent the shortage of electric energy is the primary goal of energy market liberalization; its main reasons are price reduction of energy sources for all groups of consumers including fluent and reliable supply. It is a paradox that this situation has changed in a short period of time. The main reason is that the prices of primary energy sources have broken all possible records. This particularly applies to electricity, where performance balance together with the predicted economic developments in EU countries as well as shut down of some efficient electricity production sites have set up conditions for the negative balance within the EU energy system. As specialist literature and scientific studies have shown, increasing electric energy prices and related problems will be solved in the EU by the extension of regulation mechanisms and permanently changing energy legislation. The primary goal in the EU is to decrease the dependence on the import of energy and energy sources. The EU authorities have set the primary objective of energy policy – reliable and fluent energy supplies to all customers. The most significant challenge is to be self-reliant in energy supply at national level as well as to limit import of primary energy sources from unstable regions. The Council of Europe asked the European Commission to propose further measures as: effective separation of production and supply activities from the operation of energy distribution system, further co-ordination of competences, a higher degree of independence of national energy regulation authorities, setting up an independent mechanism for co-operation between national regulation authorities, setting up a mechanism for distribution companies to improve the co-ordination of network operations and network safety, international trade and network operation, higher transparency of operations on energy market. Contemporary model of energy market in the Slovak Republic consists of producers, suppliers, distribution system operators and transmission system operators, consumers and deviation settlement, which is performed by the transmission system operator SEPS. Some European states have one more market participant – market operator, whose activities are different in different states. It takes on some distribution system operator’s competences and creates others that improve the quality of electricity market. Its competences include the areas covering the registration of market participants, registration and publicizing of offer and demand for supplies and consumption of electricity in various time horizons, assessment and settlement of deviations and organization of short term (daily and shorter) energy market. The liberalization of energy market is expected to use a new, nondiscriminatory electricity supply system. The state regulated system is gradually being abolished. Unlike the old system, the new competitive energy market environment offers the customer a completely new position. The customer can now completely control his market operations with electricity, but, on the other hand, he is fully responsible for all his decisions.