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2005 | Vol. 30, No. 1 | 5-17
Tytuł artykułu

Binaural masking of amplitude modulation

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
A new concept concerned with the transformation of acoustic stimuli in the auditory system postulates the existence of a form of spectral analysis applied to the amplitude changes of the stimuli. It is assumed that this analysis takes place in the so-called modulation filters, i.e. bandpass linear filters tuned to different rates of the amplitude changes. The most striking argument supporting this idea is an effect of masking in the amplitude modulation domain whose nature can be easily explained basing on this concept. As the modulation filters are situated on the higher levels of the auditory system, it is also assumed that this form of masking is entirely a central process. However, most of the studies concerned with masking in the modulation domain used monaural listening only. Therefore, the main purpose of the presented here experiments was to investigate whether this type of masking is entirely a central process. Using a Three-Alternative Forced-Choice (3AFC) procedure the binaural and monaural masked thresholds of amplitude modulation were determined. A sinusoidal carrier at a frequency of 4 kHz was amplitude modulated by a specially designed band of noise characterized by a very low value of the crest factor, which was used as a masking signals. Different bandwidths of the modulating masking signals were used as well as different center frequencies to investigate whether the masking patterns in the modulation domain depend on the masker bandwidth and its center frequency. The modulating target (masked) signal was a pure tone at a frequency range from 2 to 256 Hz. Both modulating signals were applied to the same sinusoidal carrier signal. The most effective masking was noticed when the rate of the sinusoidal modulation was close to the center frequency of the masking signal or when it was in its spectral range and decreased outside of this range. The character of this dependence confirms the existence of some form of a frequency selectivity in the modulation rate domain similarly to the audible frequency domain. The thresholds for monaural and binaural listening were very close to each other. This implies that masking in the modulation domain is a central process.
Wydawca

Rocznik
Strony
5-17
Opis fizyczny
Bibliogr. 26 poz., rys.
Twórcy
autor
  • Adam Mickiewicz University, Institute of Acoustics, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań, Poland, mkordus@amu.edu.pl
autor
  • Adam Mickiewicz University, Institute of Acoustics, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań, Poland
  • Adam Mickiewicz University, Institute of Acoustics, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań, Poland
Bibliografia
  • [1] BACON S. P., GRANTHAM D. W., Modulation masking: effects of modulation frequency, depth and phase, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 85, 2575–2580 (1989).
  • [2] BACON S. P., MOORE B. C. J., Temporal effects in simultaneous pure-tone masking: Effects of signal frequency, masker/signal frequency ratio, and masker level, Hear. Res., 23, 257–266 (1986).
  • [3] DAU T., Modeling auditory processing of amplitude modulation, University of Oldenburg, 1996.
  • [4] DAU T., KOLLMEIER B., KOHLRAUSCH A., Modeling auditory processing of amplitude modulation: I. Detection and masking with narrowband carriers, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 102, 2892–2905 (1997).
  • [5] DAU T., KOLLMEIER B., KOHLRAUSCH A., Modeling auditory processing of amplitude modulation: II. Spectral and temporal integration, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 102, 2906–2919 (1997).
  • [6] DAU T., KOLLMEIER B., KOHLRAUSCH A., Modeling modulation perception: modulation lowpass filter or modulation filter bank?, [in:] Psychoacoustics, Speech and Hearing Aids, B. Kollmeier [Ed.], World Scientific, Singapore 1996.
  • [7] J. P. EGAN, H. W. HAKE, On the masking pattern of a simple auditory stimulus, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 22, 622–630 (1950).
  • [8] R. P. HELLMAN, J. J. ZWISŁOCKI, Monaural loudness summation at 1000 cps and interaural summation, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 35, 856–865 (1963).
  • [9] HOUTGAST T., Frequency selectivity in amplitude-modulation detection, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 85, 1676–1680 (1989).
  • [10] KAY R. H., Hearing of modulation in sounds, Physiol. Rev., 62, 894-975 (1982).
  • [11] KOHLRAUSCH A., FASSEL R., VAN DER HEIJDEN M., KORTEKAAS R., VAN DE PAR S., OXENHAM A. S., Detection of tones in low-noise noise: Further eveidence for the role of envelope fluctuations, Acustica, Acta-Acustica, 83, 659–669 (1997).
  • [12] KORDUS M., SĘK A., Monaural an binaural detection thresholds of amplitude modulation, Archives of Acoustics, 29, 393–409 (2004).
  • [13] LEMAŃSKA J., SĘK A., RYBICKA W., Masking in the amplitude modulation rate domain, Archives of Acoustics, 28, 151–159 (2003).
  • [14] LEMAŃSKA J., SĘK A., SKRODZKA E., Discrimination of the amplitude modulation rate, Archives of Acoustics, 27, 3–22 (2002).
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  • [16] LORENZI C., MICHEYL C., BERTHOMMIER F., Neuronal correlates of perceptual amplitudemodulation detection, Hear. Res., 90, 219–227 (1995).
  • [17] MARKS L. E., Binaural summation of the loudness of pure tones, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 64, 107–113 (1978).
  • [18] MOLLER A. R., Dynamic properties of primary auditory fibers compared with cells in the cochlear nucleus, Acta Physiol. Scand., 98, 157–167 (1976).
  • [19] MOORE B. C. J., An Introduction to the Psychology of Hearing, 4th Ed., Academic Press, London 1997.
  • [20] MOORE B. C. J., An Introduction to the Psychology of Hearing, 5th Ed., Academic Press, London 2003.
  • [21] OZIMEK E., KONIECZNY J., SUZUKI Y., SONE T., Random changes in envelope of AM tones and their detection, Journal Acoustical Society of Japan (E), 19, 83–91 (1998).
  • [22] REES A., MOLLER A. R., Responses of neurons in the inferior colliculus of the rat to AM and FM tones, Hearing. Res., 10, 301–310 (1983).
  • [23] VIEMEISTER N. F., WAKEFIELD G. H., Multiple looks and temporal integration, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Suppl., 1, 86, S23 (1989).
  • [24] ZWICKER E., Die Grenzen der Hörbarkeit der Amplitudenmodulation und der Frequenzmodulation eines Tones, Acustica, 2, 125–133 (1952).
  • [25] ZWICKER E., Temporal effects in simultaneous masking and loudness, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 38, 132–141 (1965).
  • [26] ZWISŁOCKI J. J., Central masking and neural activity in the cochlear nucleus, Audiology, 10, 48–59 (1971).
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikatory
Identyfikator YADDA
bwmeta1.element.baztech-article-BAT3-0019-0037
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