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2014 | R. 59, nr 1 | 109--133
Tytuł artykułu

Edward Blyth (1810-1873). Ojciec indyjskiej ornitologii

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Edward Blyth (1810-1873) father of indian ornitology
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Abstrakty
EN
Edward Blyth was born on 23 December 1810. When he was a young man he took an interest with the zoology which became his life's passion. As a young naturalist he was a conscientious observer of nature and a man gifted with a superb memory. Unfortunately his career was not successful in London because of a conflict with the younger of the Gray brothers. Facing the prospect of no employment in The British Museum, Blyth decided to leave England for Calcutta where he was offered a post of a museum curator. The English naturalist spent in India in the years 1841 to 1862. During that time he greatly enriched the zoological collection of the museum and consequently the place had much more visitors. Regarding his private life he got married in 1854 to Elisabeth Mary Turner Hodges. Undoubtedly the next four year were the happiest in Blyth's life. After his wife's death Blyth's health condition deteriorated. The ongoing conflicts he kept having while the first stay in India and constant struggle to improve his financial status made him decide to return to England. Blyth left India in 1862. After coming back to his homeland he continued the naturalistic passion. Nevertheless Blyth was constantly troubled by his financial problems. Also, his health, both mental and physical, systematically deteriorated. Finally the death came on 27 December 1873, in London. Blyth tried in vain to gain the recognition and join the scientific establishment of the 19th century England. Constant lack of satisfactory income and often problems with health prevented the ornithologist to be fully devote to his passion. The aim of this article is to highlight some of the most important and interesting events of Blyth’s life. Moreover, another objective is to popularise Blyth and his work since he was one of the greatest naturalists of his time.
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Rocznik
Strony
109--133
Opis fizyczny
Bibliogr. 46 poz.
Twórcy
autor
  • Instytut Filozofii Wydział Humanistyczny Uniwersytetu Zielonogórskiego
Bibliografia
  • Ch. Brandon-Jones: A Clever, Odd, Wild Fellow. The Life and Work of Edward Blyth, Zoologist, 1810-1873. „Hamadryad" 2006, vol. 31, no. l, s.77 [1-175].
  • A. Grote: introduction (Memoir of Edward Blyth), [w:] E. B1yth: Catalogue of Mammals and Birds of Burma. With a Memoir, And Portrait of The Author. Hertford 1875, s.III-XXIV.
  • A. Brackman: A Delicate Arrangement. The Strange Case of Charles Darwin and Alfred Rüssel Wallace. New York 1980, s. 36.
  • Biographical Notices of the Original Members of the British Ornithologists' Union, of the principal Contributors to the First Series of „The Ibis" and of the Officials. „Ibis" 1909, vol. 50, s. 175 [71-232], http://tiny.pl/h42dc (2012-08-08).
  • K. Jodkowski: Problem uteoretyzowania faktów naukowych. „Zagadnienia Naukoznawstwa" 1983, t. 19, z. 4, s. 419-435.
  • K. Kilian: Lakatosowska periodyzacja twórczości Feyerabenda. „Studia Philosophica Wratislaviensia" 2012, vol. VII, fasc. 4, s. 25.
  • „The Magazine of Natural History" 1832, vol. 5, s. 722 [718-722].
  • Edward Blyth, Quirles Darwin, and the Animal Trade in Nineteenth-Century India and Britain. „Journal of the History of Biology" 1997, vol. 30, no. 2, s. 156 [145-178].
  • S. G. Sealy: Cuckoos and their fosterers: uncovering details of Edward Blyth's field experiments. „Archives of Natural History" 2009, vol. 36, no. 1, s. 129-135.
  • G. White: The Natural History of Seiborne. London 1836.
  • R. Russell: The Business of Nature. John Gould & Australia. Canberra 2011, s. 9.
  • C. Aydon: Charles Darwin: The Naturalist Who started a scientific revolution. New York 2002, s.XXIII.
  • D. P. Schullz, S. E. Schullz: A History of Modem Psychology. Belmont 2008, s. 147.
  • Ch. H. Smith: Blyth, Edward (England 1810-1873), http://tiny.pl/hjg7z (2012-04-04).
  • Ch. Brandon-Jones: Charles Darwin and the Repugnant Curators. „Annals of Science" 1996, no. 53, s. 501.
  • G. T. Bellany: Gray, George Robert, [w:] Dictionary of National Biography. L. Stephen, S .Lee (eds.). vol. XXIII, New York-London 1890, s. 7 [7-8].
  • List Johna G. Childrena do Karola Darwina z 21 lutego 1838r., http://tiny.pl/hjt3n(2012-04-04).
  • The Correspondence of Charles Darwin. F. Burkhardt, S. Smith (eds.). vol. 8, Cambridge 1993, s. 467-468.
  • List Karola Darwina do Johna G. Childrena z 22 lutego 1838 r., http://tiny.pl /hit32 (2011-12-12).
  • E. Blyth: On the dental system of the Lemuridae; Observations on the Plantigrada of Cuvier; Exhibition of a gigantic head of an ox. „Proceedings of the Zoological Society" 1838; „The Analyst" 1839 (9), s.320-322.
  • G. Cuvier: The Animal Kingdom, Arranged according Its Organization; Forming The Basis for A Natural History of Animals and an Introduction to Comparative Anatomy. London 1840.
  • D. Wool: Charles Lyell - „the father of geology" -as a forerunner of modern ecology. „Oikos" 2001, vol. 94, no. 3, s. 385-391.
  • Ch. Lyell: Principles of Geology, vol. 1, London 1830; vol. 2, London 1832; vol. 3, London 1833.
  • W. Coleman: Lyell and the «Reality» of Species. „Isis" 1962, vol. 53, no. 173 (part 3), s. 338.
  • B. G. Beddall: „Notes for Mr. Darwin": Letters to Charles Darwin from Edward Blyth at Calcutta: A Study in the Process of Discovery. „Journal of the History of Biology" 1973, vol. 6, no. l, s. 75 [69-95].
  • E. Blyth: An Attempt to classify the «Varieties» of Animals, with Observations on the marked Seasonal and other Changes which naturally take place in various British Species, and which do not constitute Varieties. „The Magazine of Natural History" 1835, vol. 8, s. 40-53.
  • E. Blyth: Observations on the various seasonal and other external Changes which regularly take place in Birds, more particularly in those which occur in Britain; with Remarks on their great Importance in indicating the true Affinities of Species; and upon the Natural System of Arrangement. „The Magazine of Natural History" 1836, vol. 9, s. 393-409.
  • E. Blyth: Further Remarks on the Affinities of the feathered Race; and upon the Nature of Specific Distinctions. „The Magazine of Natural History" 1836, vol. 9, s. 505-514.
  • E. Blyth: On the Psychological Distinction between Man and all other Animals; and the consequent Diversity of Human Influence over the inferior Ranks of Creation, from any mutual and reciprocal Influence exercised among the Latter. „The Magazine of Natural History 1837, vol. 1, s. 1-9, 77-85, 131-141.
  • M. Shafique Bhatti,M. Mumtaz Khan: Coalescing the Romance of Antiquity, Literature, Orient and Imperial Justice: Sir William Jones and the Birth of „Indology". „Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences" (June) 2009, vol. 29, no. 1, s. 92 [91-100].
  • http://tiny.pl/hf8vp (2011-07-05).
  • J. M. Taylor: Jules Janick: Lorenzo Da Ponte and Nathaniel Wallich: Jews in the Enlightenment, http://liny.pl/hf8vz (2011-07-05).
  • L. C. Rookmaaker: The Taxonomic History of The Recent Forms of Sumatran Rhinoceros. „Journal of The Malaysian Branch of The Royal Asiatic Society" 1984 (part 1), vol. 57, s. 15 112-251.
  • http://tiny.pl/hjg7t (2012-08-03)
  • K. Jodkowski: Spisek Darwina, [w:] Ewolucja, filozofia, religia. D. Leszczyński (red.), vol. Ill, Wrocław 2010, s. 265-277.
  • B. Beolens, M. Watkins, M. Grayson: The Eponym Dictionary of Mammals. Baltimore 2009, s. 46.
  • E. Blyth: A monograph of the species of wild sheep. „Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal" 1841, vol. 10, s. 858-888.
  • E. C. Dickinson, A. Pillie: Systematic notes on Asian birds. 51. Dates of avian names introduced in early volumes of the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. „Zoologische Mededelingen" 2006, vol. 80-5 (3), s. 113-124.
  • W. Böhme, I. Das: An overlooked but invalid senior synonym of Chamaeleo monachus Gray, 1865 Squamata: Chamaeleonidae, „Bonner zoologische Beiträge" 2001, bd. 50, h. 1-2, s. 31 [31-34].
  • Ch. Brandon-Jones: Long gone and forgotten: reassessing the life and career of Edward Blyth, zoologist. „Archives of Natural History" 1995, vol. 22 (1), s. 91 [91-95].
  • http://tiny.pl/lipd97(2012-04-03).
  • J. Browne: Charles Darwin. The Power of Place. vol. II, Princeton 2002, s. 317.
  • A. Desmond, J. Moore: Darwin. The Life of a Tormented Evolutionist. New York-London 1994, s. 563; P. Tort: Darwin and the Science of Evolution. London-New York 2001, s. 105.
  • T. C. Jerdon: The Birds of India. Calcutta 1862.
  • J. A. Murray: The Avifauna Of British India And Its Dependencies. A Systematic Account, With Descriptions Of All The Known Species Of Birds Inhabiting British India, Observations On Their Habits, Nidification, &c, Tables Of Their Geographical Distribution In Persia, Beloochistan, Afghanistan, Sind, Punjab, N. W. Provinces, And The Peninsula Of India Generally, With Woodcuts, Lithographs, And Coloured Illustrations. Vol. 1, London-Bombay 1888, s.XIV.
  • W. Tatarkiewicz: Historia Filozofii, t. 2, Warszawa 2005, s. 183.
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Bibliografia
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