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2014 | Vol. 13, nr 1 | 75--86
Tytuł artykułu

Wpływ hałasu drogowego na ptaki

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
EN
The influence of traffic noise on birds
Języki publikacji
PL
Abstrakty
PL
Szybki rozwój sieci drogowej oraz infrastruktury z nią związanej wywiera silną presję na środowisko oraz żywe organizmy, wykorzystujące siedliska zlokalizowane w pobliżu dróg. Negatywne skutki tego procesu polegają na utracie i fragmentacji siedlisk użytkowanych przez zwierzęta. Osobnym zagadnieniem jest wzrost zanieczyszczeń powietrza i gleby w sąsiedztwie szlaków komunikacyjnych. Ważnym problemem jest oddziaływanie hałasu na zwierzęta egzystujące w pobliżu dróg, w tym szczególnie na ptaki. Hałas generowany przez pojazdy zakłóca komunikację dźwiękową ptaków zwłaszcza w okresie formowania się par i wczesnej inkubacji jaj. Zasadnicze funkcje śpiewu ptaków to sygnalizacja rywalom własnego gatunku zajęcia terytorium oraz co najważniejsze przywabienie partnera. Hałaśliwe „tło” w sąsiedztwie drogi powoduje trudności w porozumiewaniu się osobników. Ogólnie zjawisko zakłócania komunikacji głosowej pomiędzy osobnikami przez hałas drogowy, wywołuje tzw. „maskowanie” ważnych sygnałów biologicznych. Najbardziej wrażliwe na wpływ hałasu drogowego okazują się gatunki wydające dźwięki o niskim paśmie częstotliwości ze względu na skuteczność ich maskowania przez hałas charakteryzujący się podobnym spektrum częstotliwości. W efekcie działania hałasu drogowego powstają zmiany w natężeniu a nawet częstotliwości śpiewu ptaków. Niektórzy autorzy zwracają również uwagę na modyfikujący wpływ czynników klimatycznych oraz struktury i typu siedliska w rozprzestrzenianiu się hałasu. Większość wykonanych dotychczas badań dotyczy okresu lęgowego, a tylko nieliczne prace zajmują się oddziaływaniem hałasu na ptaki w okresie migracji lub w okresie zimowania. Najczęściej podejmowanym zagadnieniem przez badaczy jest ocena zagęszczeń lęgowych ptaków przy drodze. W większości badań zaobserwowano spadek liczebności i bogactwa gatunkowego osobników w sąsiedztwie szlaków komunikacyjnych. Jednak niektóre gatunki ptaków, ze względu na tzw. „efekt krawędzi”, który modyfikuje zasobność bazy pokarmowej oraz mikroklimat, występują w większych zagęszczeniach właśnie przy drogach. Ważnym zagadnieniem jest również modyfikujący wpływ hałasu na drapieżnictwo przy drogach.
EN
The dynamic development of road infrastructure negatively influences the natural environment and animals using habitats near roads. The main negative effects of this process are primarily: loss and fragmentation of habitats. Another problem is an increase in pollutants and noise intensity in the vicinity of roads. An important problem is negative influence of traffic noise on animals and especially birds. Road noise generate by vehicles disturb vocal communication between birds, mainly in the time of pair formation and early incubation period. Difficulties in communication evoked by noise seem to be one of the main problems in functioning in noisy surroundings. The main functions of birds’ singing are related with territorial defence and mating a partner. Another important effect on birds’ functioning near roads results in the masking of important biological signals due to noise . Masking important signals for territorial defence or partner selection can have as a consequence a negative influence on reproductive success. Species of birds which emit low frequency sounds are particularly exposed to this negative impact. As a results of traffic noise the changes in the volume and frequency of emitted sounds during singing are observed. Some authors pay attention to such factors as local climate or habitat and vegetation structure, because they have an important influence on the propagation of traffic noise. Most of the studies carried out previously concerns the breeding season, and only a few works to describe the impact of noise on birds during migration or wintering. The most frequently reported problem for researchers is to assess the densities of breeding birds near the roadside. The majority of species react with a drop in numbers at roadsides. There are species which are also known to appear with higher density at roadsides. Usually this is related with a richer plant vegetation structure at roadsides and the appearance of the so-called “edge effect”. Some results indicate that bird density at forest peripheries can reach values 40% higher than in the deep forest. An explanation of causes for such a state of matters are the higher numbers of invertebrates found at forest edges. The important factor influencing bird populations breeding at roadsides is also nest predation. Noise and visual disturbance can modifying predator pressure near roads.
Wydawca

Rocznik
Strony
75--86
Opis fizyczny
Bibliogr. 67 poz., tab.
Twórcy
autor
  • Zakład Ochrony Przyrody, Instytut Biologii i Biochemii Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej ul. Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, wiacek@hektor.umcs.lublin.pl
autor
Bibliografia
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