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2017 | Vol. 43, nr 3 | 21--37
Tytuł artykułu

Index and statistical methods in water management. A case study from the Mesopotamian marshes, Iraq

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
Water quality status of marshes within Mesopotamia has been investigated, and temporal and spatial changes determined by examining causes and effects. Data gathered from predesiccation and after re-flooding periods were subjected to index and statistical analysis. The quality of waters in the region was assigned to polluted class, regarding specific salinity related parameters. Total dissolved solids, chloride and sulfate were main variables negatively impacting the water quality. The main quality parameters creating spatial differences between the selected marshes were electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids. Temporal differences in dissolved oxygen, salinity, nitrate and phosphate concentrations between the 1980's and 2000's reflected the impact of desiccation and water shortage on the marshes. Salinity and nutrient concentrations generally increased after desiccation compared to their historical levels. These findings indicated that the Mesopotamian marshes had poor water quality due to increase in the concentration of salinity. The study revealed that the index and statistical methods are useful tools identifying water quality and fingerprinting pollution. This will help decision makers to establish strategic and comprehensive water management plans.
Wydawca

Rocznik
Strony
21--37
Opis fizyczny
Bibliogr. 25 poz., tab., rys.
Twórcy
  • Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. West, Waterloo-Ontario, Canada
  • Department of Marine Environmental Chemistry, Marine Science Centre, University of Basrah, Qarmatt Ali, University Campus, Basrah, Iraq
  • Department of Environmental Engineering, Dokuz Eylül University, Tinaztepe Campus Buca 35390, Izmir, Turkey, hulya.boyacioglu@deu.edu.tr
  • Department of Statistics, Ege University, Bornova 35100, Izmir, Turkey
Bibliografia
  • [1] KHAN F., HUSAIN T., LUMB A., Water quality evaluation and trend analysis in selected watersheds of the Atlantic Region of Canada, Environ. Monit. Assess., 2003, 88, 221.
  • [2] ABBASI S.A., Water quality indices, state of the art report. Scientific contribution No. INCOH/SAR 25/2002, National Institute of Hydrology (INCOH), Roorkee 2002.
  • [3] BOYACIOGLU H., Development of a water quality index based on a European Classification Scheme, Water S.A., 2007, 33 (1), 101.
  • [4] HORTON R.K., An index number system for rating water quality, J. Water Poll. Control Fed., 1965, 37 (3), 300.
  • [5] LOBATO T.C., HAUSER-DAVIS R.A., OLIVEIRA T.F., SILVEIRA A.M., SILVA H.A.N., TAVARES M.R.M., SARAIVA A.C.F., Construction of a novel water quality index and quality indicator for reservoir water quality evaluation. A case study in the Amazon region, J. Hydrol., 2015, 522, 674.
  • [6] RICHARDSON C.J., REISS P., HUSAIN N.A., ALWASH A.J., POOL D.J., The restoration potential of the Mesopotamian marshes of Iraq, Science, 2005, 307, 1307.
  • [7] AL-MAAROFI S.S., DOUABUL A.A., AL-SAAD H.T., Mesopotamian marshlands. Salinization problem, J. Environ. Prot., 2012, 3, 1295.
  • [8] IMET, Master Plan for Integrated Water Resources Management in the Marshland Area. Phase 2, Italian Ministry of Environment and Territories, Italy, 2006.
  • [9] AL-MANSSORY F., Future assessment of Southern Iraq marshes, University of Basra, Department of Geology, Basra 2008.
  • [10] WARNNER B.G., DOUABUL A.A., ABAYCHI J.K., Restoration of the marshes of southern Iraq. Prospects and challenges, [in:] S. Kubba, The Iraqi marshlands and the Marsh Arabs. The Madan, Their Culture and Environment, 1st Ed., Ithaca Press, United Kingdom, 2011, 210–299.
  • [11] HART B.T., LAKE P.S., WEBB A.J., GRACE M.R., Ecological risk to aquatic systems from salinity increases, Austr. J. Bot., 2003, 51, 689.
  • [12] NIELSEN D.L., BROCK M.A., REES G.N., BALDWIN D.S., Effect on increasing salinity on fresh ecosystem in Australia, Austr. J. Bot., 2003, 51, 655.
  • [13] DOUABUL A.A., AL-MUDHAFER N., ALHELLO A.A., AL-SAAD, H.T., AL-MAAROFI S.S., Restoration versus reflooding. Mesopotamian marshlands, Hydrol. Current Res., 2012, 3 (5), 1.
  • [14] SCOTT D.A., A directory of Wetlands in the Middle East Slimbridge, UK, IUCN, Slimbridge 1995.
  • [15] PARTOW H., The Mesopotamian marshlands. Demise of an ecosystem, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi 2001.
  • [16] REKACEWICZ P., From wetlands to dry lands. The destruction of the Mesopotamian marshlands, UNEP /GRID-Arenda, 2005.
  • [17] HURLEY T., SADIQ R., MAZUMDER A., Adaptation and evaluation of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) for use as an effective tool to characterize drinking source water quality, Water Res., 2012, 46 (11), 3544.
  • [18] BOYACIOGLU H., Utilization of the water quality index method as a classification tool, Environ. Monit. Assess., 2010, 167, 115.
  • [19] Canadian Water Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life, Canadian Council of Environment, Winnipeg 2001.
  • [20] Canadian Water Quality Index 1.0. User’s Manual, Canadian Council of Environment, Winnipeg 2005.
  • [21] Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation, Official Gazette, Ankara 2008, 13 (2), No. 26786.
  • [22] European Council, Consolidated text produced by the CONSLEG system of the office for official publications of the European Communities. Council Directive of 16 June 1975 concerning the quality required of surface water intended for the abstraction of drinking water in the Member States (75/440/EEC), Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, CONSLEG 1975L0440, 1991, 31 (12).
  • [23] MANLY B.F.J., Statistics for environmental science and management, CRC Press, 2009.
  • [24] MCGARIAL K., CUSHMAN S., STAFFORD S., Multivariate statistics for wildlife and ecology research, Springer, New York 2000.
  • [25] DAVIES J.M., Application and tests of the Canadian water quality index for assessing changes in water quality in lakes and rivers of Central North America, Lake Reserv. Manage., 2006, 22 (4), 308.
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikatory
Identyfikator YADDA
bwmeta1.element.baztech-5fa8eb3c-efca-403a-abdc-186581632665
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