Krakowskie środowisko umysłowe na przełomie XIV i XV wieku a problem powstania Psałterza florianskiego
THE INTELLECTUAL CIRCLES IN KRAKOW AT THE TURN OF THE FOURTEENTH AND FIFTEENTH CENTURIES AND THE PROBLEM OF THE CREATION OF THE SANKT FLORIAN PSALTER
In the fourteenth century, Krakow became the most important center in the revival of the Polish Kingdom. Here in fact was situated the headquarters of the ruler and the royal court, the capital of the bishopric and the cathedral chapter. In the metropolitan area, consisting of Krakow, Kazimierz and Kleparz there was a large and varied environment of the diocesan and monastic clergy. In addition to the numerous clergy at the Wawel Cathedral (chapter, colleges, vicars, mansionaries and psalmists) there were in operation 12 parishes (4 of which were run by monastic clergy), 4 collegiates and 11 monasteries. The most numerous were the mendicant orders, with 4 monasteries (the Franciscans, the Dominicans, the Augustinians and the Carmelites), the canons regular, with 4 monasteries (the Order of the Holy Ghost, the Marks, the Order of the Holy Sepulchre, The Canons Regular of the Lateran), the Slavic Benedictines, and two orders of nuns: the Poor Clares and the Norbertines. Near Krakow, in Tyniec, there was a Benedictine abbey, and a Cistercian abbey situated in Mogila. A group of several dozen people with university educations received in Paris, Bologna, Padua and Prague gathered at the royal court and within the diocesan and monastic clergy circles. Thanks to them the foundation of the university in Krakow in 1364 was possible; nevertheless, it functioned only a few years, followed by attempts to renew it in 1390-1392, and finally leading to the second foundation in 1400. At the turn of the fourteenth and fifteenth century the Krakow intellectual environment was creative at many levels, including literary and liturgical. A detailed analysis of the biography of Bartlomiej from Jaslo resulted in questions regarding Ewa Sniezynska-Stolot's theory that he was the creator of the first part of the Sankt Florian Psalter in 1399 in Krakow: According to reliable sources, Bartlomiej was staying in Prague from 1398 to 1400. Furthermore, the same researcher's opinions on the astrological determinants of Jadwiga of Anjou's spirituality were undermined.
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