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Phthalates - widespread occurrence and the effect on male gametes. Part 1. General characteristics, sources and human exposure

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Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
Phthalates are widely present in human environment. Widespead exposure to those agents, which are compounds of numerous daily use products, is unavoidable. In the current paper following phthalates benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), din- butyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) are described. Phthalates mainly enter to the composition of plastic goods, like boxes and containers for storage of foods, toys, medical devices, and also cosmetics, personal care products, as well as paints, vanishes, printing inks. This paper describes the occurence of individual phthalates in the environment (water, air) and in different products. During production, transportation, manufacturing of goods and improper disposal, phthalates released into soil, water and air. For example indoor air included 13 mg/m3 phthalates, where 72 % of all constitutes DEP (2.29 mg/m3), BBP (3.97 mg/m3) and DEHP (2.43 mg/m3). Exposure to phthalates take place mainly by ingestion or inhalation air or through the skin. Presence of phthalates were observed in numerous food products and is connected with migration of those compounds from food storage containers to preserved food. They could mirgate to salivia during sucking and chewing of toys and this way increased exposure to of children. The results of studies regarding to concentration of phthalates in human tissues and excretions are also described. The level of phthalates were measured in numerous of human biological samples. For example, DEHP, DEP and DBP were detected at levels of 5.71 mg/L in blood serum, of 0.30 mg/L in semen and of 0.72 mg/kg in fat samples.
PL
Ftalany są szeroko rozpowszechnione w środowisku człowieka. Powszechne narażenie na te związki, które wchodzą w skład wielu produktów codziennego użytku jest nieuniknione. W niniejszej pracy opisano ftalany butylobenzylu (BBP), dibutylu (DBP) i dietyloheksylu (DEHP), dietlylu (DEP) oraz diizononylu (DINP). Ftalany przede wszytkim wchodzą w skład wyrobów plastikowych, takich jak pojemników do przechowywania żywności, zabawek, wyrobów medycznych oraz kosmetyków środków higieny osobistej, a także farb, lakierów, tuszów drukarskich. W niniejszej pracy opisano występowanie poszczególnych ftalanów w w środowisku (np. w wodzie, powierzu) oraz w różnych produktach. Podczas produkcji, transportu, wyrobu produktów oraz niewłaściwej utylizacji, ftalany przenikają do gleby, wody i powietrza. Na przykład, w powietrzu w pomieszczeniach stwierdzono 13 mg/m3 ftalanów, z których 72% of stanowiły DEP (2,29 mg/m3), BBP (3,97 mg/m3) i DEHP (2,43 mg/m3). Narażenie na ftalany nastepuje głównie drogą pokarmową, inhalacyjną oraz poprzez skórę. Obecność ftalanów stwierdzono w wielu produktach żywnościowych, co jest związane z migracją tych związków z opakowań do przechowywanej w nich żywności. Mogą migrować do śliny podczas ssania i żucia zabawek i w ten sposób powodują zwiększone narażenie niemowląt i małych dzieci. Omówiono także wyniki badań dotyczących stężenia ftalanów w tkankach i wydalinach ludzkich. Stężenie ftalanow mierzone było w różnych thankach ludzkich. Przykładowo, obecność DEHP, DEP i DBP stwierdzono w surowicy krwi (5,71 mg/l), w nasieniu (0,30 mg/l) oraz w tłuszczu (0,72 mg/kg).
Wydawca
-
Rocznik
Tom
67
Numer
2
Opis fizyczny
p.97-103,ref.
Twórcy
  • Department of Radiation Hygiene and Radiobiology, National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene, 24 Chocimska Street, 00-791 Warsaw, Poland
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