Reproductive characteristics of feral pigs in New Zealand
Breeding was studied in feral pigs Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 inhabiting the northern part of the South Island, New Zealand. In a sample of 1,117 female pigs 50.4% showed evidence (pregnancy or lactation) that they were breeding. There was no statistically significant regional variation in the breeding status of females. Breeding occurred throughout the year with birth peaks in July-November and March. Among 101 females 5-8 months old, 30 (29.7%) were pregnant. The oldest breeding sow was 14 years old. Breeding females up to 17 months old were significantly heavier than non-breeding females, but the difference ceased to be significant for older animals. Pregnant females averaged 6.2 foetuses (range 1 - 11). Lactating females had on average 5.4 teats extended (range 1 - 12). For areas where pigs are considered a pest species a simulation model predicted a population recovery time of 30 months from a 70% kill.
- Andrzejewski R. and Jezierski W. 1978. Management of a wild boar population and its effect on commercial land. Acta theriol. 23, 19: 309 - 339.
- Asdell S. A. 1964. Patterns of mammalian reproduction. 2nd ed., Ithaca, N.Y., Comstock Publishing Co.: 1 - 640.
- Barlow N. D. and Clout M. N. 1983. A comparison of 3-parameter, single-species population models, in relation to the management of brushtail possums in New Zealand. Oecologia 60: 250 - 258.
- Barrett R. H. 1978. The feral hog on the Dye Creek Ranch, California. Hilgardia, 46: 282 - 346.
- Bauer J. J. 1982, Untersuchungen zur Dynamik von stabilen und kolonisierenden Gemsenpopulationen (Rupicapra rupicapra L.) Neuseelands. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis. Albert-Ludwigs- Universitat, Freiburg, Germany.
- Briedermann L. 1971. Ermittlungen zur Aktivitatsperiodik des Mitteleuropaischen Wildschweine (Sus s. scrofa). Zool. Garten 10, 6: 302 - 327.
- Clarke C. M. H. 1991. Pig hunters and their dogs in the northern South Island: characteristics and harvest efficiency. New Zealand Geographer 47: 11 — 18.
- Clarke C. M. H. and Dzięciolowski R. M. 1991. Feral pigs in the northern South Island: 1. Origin, distribution and density. J.of the Royal Society of New Zealand 21: 237 - 247.Reproduction of feral pigs in New Zealand
- Clarke C. M. H., Dzi^ciolowski R. M., Batcheler D. and Frampton R. M. (in press). A comparison of tooth eruption and wear and dental cemcntum techniques in age determination of New Zealand feral pigs. J. of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
- Day B. N. 1962. The reproduction of swine. [In: Reproduction in Farm Animals. E. S. E. Hafez, ed.]. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia.
- Diong C. H. 1973. Studies of the Malayan wild pig in Perak and Jahore. Malayan Nature Journal 26: 120 — 151.
- Dziijciolowski R. M. 1991. Ecological niches of five big ungulates in a forest tract. Folia Forestalia Polonica, Series A - Forestry 33: 56 - 70.
- Dzi^cioiowski R. M. and Clarke C. M. H. 1989. Age structure and sex ratio in a population of harvested feral pigs in New Zealand. Acta theriol. 34: 525 - 536.
- Dzigciolowski R. M. and Clarke C. M. H. 1990. Physical condition and ectoparasite infestation of feral pigs in New Zealand. Acta theriol. 35: 299 - 309.
- Dzieciolowski R. M., Clarke C. M. H. and Fredric B. J. 1990. Growth of feral pigs in New Zealand. Acta theriol. 35: 77 - 88.
- Fräser D, and Morley J. R. 1975. The "teat order" of suckling pigs. I. Relation to birth weight and subsequent growth. J. Agric. Sei. Camb. 84: 387 - 391.
- Giffin J. 1977. Ecology of the feral pig on Hawaii Island. Elepaio 37: 140 - 142.
- Giffin J. 1978. Ecology of the feral pig on the island of Hawaii. Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Fish and Game, Hawaii: 1 - 121.
- Giles J. R. 1976. Feral pigs and Agriculture. [In: Conflict and Existence? Proc. Workshop Agric. For. Wildl.]. University of New England, Armidale, 1975: 125 - 128.
- Giles J. R. 1980. The ecology of feral pigs in western New South Wales. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Sydney University.
- Gilpen M. E., Case T. J. and Ayala F. J. 1976. e-selection. Math. Biosci. 32: 131 - 139.
- Henry V. C. 1968. Length of estrous cycles and gestation in European wild hogs. J. Wildl. Manage. 32: 406 - 408.
- Hone J. and Robards G. E. 1980. Feral pigs: ecology and control. Wool Technol. Sheep Breed 28, 4: 7-11.
- Krupka J. (ed.) 1989. Lowiectwo. PWRiL - State Publ. for Agric. & Forestry, Warszawa: 1 - 528.
- Leslie P. H. 1945. On the uses of matrices in certain population mathematics. Biometrika 33: 183-212.
- Mcllroy J. C. 1989. Aspects of the ecology of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) in the Murchison area. New Zealand J. Ecology 12: 11 - 22.
- Mcllroy J. C. 1990. Feral pig. [In: The mammals of New Zealand. C. King, ed.]. Oxford University Press: 1-600.
- Mcllroy J. C. and SailEard R. J. 1989. The effect of hunting with dogs on the numbers and movements of feral pigs, Sus scrofa, and the subsequent success of poisoning exercises in Namadgi National Park, A.C.T. Austr. Wildl. Res. 16: 353 - 363.
- OloffH. B. 1951. Zur Biologie und Ökologi e des Schwarzwildes. Dr Paul Schops Verlag: 1 — 95.
- Pavlov P. M. 1980. The diet and ecology of the feral pig (Sus scrofa) at Girilambone, New South Wales. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Monash University, Melbourne.
- Pine D. and Gerdes G. 1973. Wildpigs in Monterey County, California. Cal. Fish Game 59: 126 - 137.
- Rathore A. K. 1988. Feral pig management programme - Blue Mountains District. Unpublished report, series 1. New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service: 1 - 36.
- Smiet A. C., Fulk G. W. and Lathiya S. B. 1979. Wild boar ecology in Thatta district: a preliminary study. Pakistan J. Zool. 11: 295 - 302.
- Stubbe M. and Stubbe W. 1977. Vergleichende Beiträge zur Reproduktions- und Geburtsbiologie von Wild- und Hausschwein Sus scrofa L., 1758. Beitr. Jagd u. Wildforsch. 10: 153 - 179.
- Sweeney J. M., Sweeney J. R. and Provost E. E. 1979. Reproductive biology of a feral hog population. J. Wildl. Manage. 43: 555 - 559.
- Wodzicki K. A. 1950. Introduced mammals in New Zealand, an ecological and economic survey. N.Z. Department of Science and Industrial Research 98: 1 — 255.
- Wood G. and Brennemany R. 1980. Feral hog movements and habitat use in coastal South Carolina. J. Wildl. Manage. 44, 4: 420 - 427.