Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2004 | 11 | 2 |
Tytuł artykułu

Ochratoxin A in grain dust - estimated exposure and relations to agricultural practices in grain production

Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxin frequently contaminating grains. OTA inhalation during grain handling may therefore represent a health risk to farmers, and was the subject of this study. Airborne and settled grain dust was collected during grain work on 84 Norwegian farms. Climate and agricultural practices on each farm were registered. Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. and OTA in settled dust were measured. Settled dust contained median 4 µg OTA/kg dust (range 2-128), correlating with Penicillium spp. (median 40 cfu/mg; range 0-32000, rs=0.33; p<0.01). Similar levels were found across grain species, districts and agricultural practices. Penicillium levels, but not OTA levels, were higher in storage than in threshing dust (p=0.003), and increased with storage time (rs=0.51, p<0.001). Farmers were exposed to median 1 mg/m3 (range 0.2-15) dust during threshing and median 7 mg/m3 (range 1-110) dust during storage work, equalling median 3.7 pg/m3 (range 0.6-200) and median 40 pg/m3 (range 2-14000) OTA, respectively (p<0.001). Agricultural practices could not predict OTA, Penicillium or Aspergillus contamination. Compared to oral intake of OTA, the inhalant exposure during grain work was low, although varying by more than 1,000-fold. However, the farmers may occasionally be highly exposed, particularly during handling of stored grain.
Opis fizyczny
  • National Institute of Occupational Health, PO Box 8149, N-0033 Oslo, Norway
  • 1. Abramson D, Sinha RN, Mills JT: Mycotoxin formation in HY-320 wheat during granary storage at 15 and 19% moisture content. Mycopathologia 1990, 111, 181-189.
  • 2. Abramson D, Sinha RN, Mills JT: Mycotoxin formation in moist 2-row and 6-row barley during granary storage. Mycopathologia 1987, 97, 179-185.
  • 3. Abramson D: Mycotoxin formation and environmental factors. In: Sinha KK, Bhatnagar D (Eds): Mycotoxins in agriculture and food safety, 255-277. Marcel Dekker Inc, New York 1998.
  • 4. Bakke B, Stewart P, Eduard W: Determinants of dust exposure in tunnel construction work. Appl Occup Environ Hygiene 2002, 17, 783-796.
  • 5. Birzele B, Prange A, Krämer J: Deoxynivalenol and ochratoxin A in German wheat and changes of level in relation to storage parameters. Food Addit Contam 2000, 17, 1027-1035.
  • 6. Brera C, Caputi R, Miraglia M, Iavicoli I, Salerno A, Carelli G: Exposure assessment to mycotoxins in workplaces: aflatoxins and ochratoxin A occurrence in airborne dusts and human sera. Microchem J 2002, 73, 167-173.
  • 7. Chelkowski J: Cereal Grains: Mycotoxins, Fungi and Quality in Drying and Storage. Elsevier, Amsterdam 1991.
  • 8. Christensen CM: Field and Storage Fungi. In: Beuchat LR (Ed): Food and Beverage Mycology, 211-232. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York 1987.
  • 9. Corey P, Hutcheon M, Broder I, Mintz S: Grain elevator workers show work-related pulmonary function changes and dose-effect relationships with dust exposure. Br J Ind Med 1982, 39, 330-337.
  • 10. Creasia DA, Thurman JD, Jones III LJD, Nealley ML, York CG, Wannermacher Jr RW, Bunner DL: Acute inhalation toxicity of T-2 mycotoxin in mice. Fundam Appl Toxicol 1987, 8, 230-235.
  • 11. Creasia DA, Thurman JD, Wannermacher jr RW, Bunner DL: Acute inhalation toxicity of T-2 mycotoxin in the rat and guinea pig. Fundam Appl Toxicol 1990, 14, 54-59.
  • 12. Creppy EE: Update of survey, regulation and toxic effects of mycotoxins in Europe. Toxicol Lett 2002, 127, 19-28.
  • 13. Di Paolo N, Guarnieri A, Garosi G, Sacchi G, Mangiarotti AM, Di Paolo M: Inhaled mycotoxins leads to acute renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1994, 9(Suppl 4), 116-20.
  • 14. Dosman JA, Cockcroft DW (Eds): Principles of Health and Safety in Agriculture. CRC Press Inc., Florida 1989. 254 Halstensen AS, Nordby KC, Elen O, Eduard W
  • 15. Eduard W: Estimation of Mean and Standard Deviation. Letter to the editor. AIHA J 2002, 63, 1-4.
  • 16. Elmholt S, Hestbjerg H: Field ecology of the ochratoxin Aproducing Penicillium verrucosum: survival and resource colonisation in soil. Mycopathologia 1999, 147, 67-81.
  • 17. Fazekas B, Tar AK, Zomborszky-Kovács M: Ochratoxin A contamination of cereal grains and coffee in Hungary in the year 2001. Act Vet Hung 2002, 50, 177-188.
  • 18. Frisvad JC, Samson RA: Mycotoxins produced by species of Penicillium and Aspergillus occurring in cereals. In: Chelkowski J (Ed): Cereal grain. Mycotoxins, fungi and quality in drying and storage. Developments in food science 26, 441-476. Elsevier Science Pub, Amsterdam 1991.
  • 19. Gregory PH, Guthrie EJ, Bunce ME: Experiments on splash dispersal of fungus spores. J Gen Microbiol 1959, 20, 328-354.
  • 20. Hald B: Ochratoxin A in human blood in European countries. IARC Sci Publ 1991, (115), 159-164.
  • 21. Harvey RB, Elissalde MH, Kubena LF, Weaverr EA, Corrier DE, Clement BA: Immunotoxicity of ochratoxin A to growling gilts. Am J Vet Res 1992, 53, 1966-1970.
  • 22. Harvey RB, Kubena LF, Elissalde MH, Rottinghaus GE, Corrier DE: Administration of ochratoxin A and T-2 toxin to growing swine. Am J Vet Res 1994, 12, 1757-1761.
  • 23. Hayes AW: Mycotoxin Teratogenicity and Mutagenicity. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 1981.
  • 24. Hökby E, Hult K, Gatenbeck S, Rutqvist L: Ochratoxin A and citrinin in 1976 crop of barley stored on farms in Sweeden. Acta Agric Scand 1979, 29, 174-178.
  • 25. IARC: Ochratoxin A. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: Some naturally occurring substances, food items and constituents, heterocyclic aromatic amines and mycotoxins. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Geneva 1993, 56, 26-32.
  • 26. Iavicoli I, Brera C, Carelli G, Caputi R, Marianccio A, Miraglia M: External and internal dose in subjects occupationally exposed to ochratoxin A. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2002, 75, 381-386.
  • 27. Krogh P: Ochratoxins in foods. In: Krogh P (Ed): Mycotoxins in Food, 97-121. Academic Press, London 1987.
  • 28. .U\VLµVND-Traczyk E, Kiecana I, Perkowski J, Dutkiewicz J: Levels of fungi and mycotoxins in samples of grain and grain dust collected on farms in eastern Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med 2001, 8, 269-274.
  • 29. Kuiper-Goodman T, Scott PM: Risk Assessment of the mycotoxin Ochratoxin A. Biomed Environ Sci 1989, 2, 179-248.
  • 30. Lacey L, Ramakrishna N, Hamer A, Magan N, Marfleet RE: Grain Fungi. In: Arora DK, Mukerji KG, Marth EH (Eds): Handbook of applied Mycology, Vol. 2, 121-178. Marvel Dekker, NY 1991.
  • 31. Langseth W, Stabbetorp H: The effect of lodging and time of harvest on deoxynivalenol contamination in barley and oats. J Phytopathol 1996, 144, 241-245.
  • 32. Langseth W, Stenwig H, Sogn L, Mo E: Growth of moulds and production of mycotoxins in wheat during drying and storage. Acta Agric Scand Sect B Soil Plant Sci 1993, 43, 32-37.
  • 33. Lillehoi EB, Elling F: Environmental conditions that facilitate ochratoxin contamination of agricultural commodities. Acta Agric Scand 1983, 33, 113-128.
  • 34. Lindblad M, Johnsson P, Jonsson N, Lindquist R, Olsen M: Predicting noncompliant levels of ochratoxin A in cereal grain from Penicillium verrucosum counts. J Appl Microbiol 2004, 97, 609-616.
  • 35. Lund F, Frisvad JC: Penicillium verrucosum in wheat and barley indicates presence of ochratoxin A. J Appl Microbiol 2003, 95, 1117-1123.
  • 36. Melbostad E, Eduard W: Organic dust-related respiratory and eye irritation in Norwegian farmers. Am J Ind Med 2001, 39, 209-217.
  • 37. Mills JT: Mycotoxins and toxigenic fungi on cereal grains in western Canada. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1990, 68, 982-986.
  • 38. Mortensen GK, Strobel BW, Hansen HCB: Determination of zearalenone and ochratoxin A in soil. Anal Bioanal Chem 2003, 376, 98-101.
  • 39. Nikolov IG, Petkova-Bocharova D, Castegnaro M, Pfohl-Leszkowicz A, Gill C, Day N, Chemozemsky IN: Molecular and epidemiological approaches to the etiology of urinary tract tumors in an area with Balkan Endemic nephropathy. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 1996, 15, 201-207.
  • 40. Petkova-Bocharova T, Chernozemsky IN, Carstegnaro M: Ochratoxin A in human blood in relation to Balkan Endemic Nephropathy and urinary system tumours in Bulgaria. Food Addit Contam 1988, 5, 299-301.
  • 41. Petzinger E, Ziegler K: Ochratoxin A from a toxicological perspective. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2000, 23, 91-98.
  • 42. Pitt JI, Hocking AD: Fungi and food Spoilage. 2nd ed. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 1995.
  • 43. Ramos AJ, Labernia N, Marin S, Sanchis V, Magan N: Effect of water activity and temperature on growth and ochratoxin production by three strains of Aspergillus ochraceus on a barley extract medium and on barley grains. Int J Food Microbiol 1998, 44, 133-140.
  • 44. Rheeder JP, Marasas WFO: Fusarium species from plant debris associated with soils from maize production areas in the Transkei region of South Africa. Mycopathologia 1998, 143, 113-119.
  • 45. Sautour M, Dantigny P, Divies C, Bensoussan M: A temperaturetype model for describing the relationship between fungal growth and water activity. Int J Food Microbiol 2001, 67, 63-69.
  • 46. Sayer ST: Fusarium infection in some Waikato, New-Zealand barley. New Zealand J Horticult Sci 1992, 20, 59-65.
  • 47. Schiefer HB, Hancock DS: Systemic effects of topical application of T-2 toxin in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1984, 76, 464-472.
  • 48. Scientific Committee on Food Opinion on Ochratoxin A, CS/CNTM/MYC/14 final, Annex II to Document XXIV/2210/98, European Commission, Bruxelles, 17 Sept 1998.
  • 49. Scudamore KA, MacDonald SJ: A collaboratory study of an HPLC method for determination of ochratoxin A in wheat using immunoaffinity column clean-up. Food Add Contamin 1998, 15, 401- 410.
  • 50. SNT study: The occurrence of trichothecenes in Norwegian and imported grain meant for human consumption, a summary report from 1990-1998. [Samlerapport om mykotoksiner i norsk matkorn, 1990- 1998.] SNT Saksnr. 199703039 (in Norwegian).
  • 51. Studer-Rohr I, Dietrich DR, Schlatter J, Schlatter C: The occurrence of ochratoxin A in coffee. Food Chem Toxicol 1995, 33, 341-355.
  • 52. Task Force Report ISSN 0194-4088 no. 139: Mycotoxins – risks in plant, animal and human systems. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology Iowa, 2003.
  • 53. Van der Wal JF: Comparative measurements of the total dust concentration at the work place with different samplers – part 1. Staub – Reinhalt, Luft 1983, 43, 291-294 (in German).
  • 54. Van Egmond HP, Speijers GJA: Survey of data on the incidence and levels of ochratoxin A in food and animal feed worldwide. Nat Toxins 1994, 3, 125-144.
  • 55. Wood GM, Patel S, Entwisle AS, Boenke A: Ochratoxin A in wheat: a second intercomparison of procedures. Food Add Contamin 1996, 13, 519-539.
  • 56. Yi CL, Kaul HP, Kubler E, Aufhammer W: Populations of Fusarium graminearum on crop residues as affected by incorporation depth, nitrogen and fungicide application. Z Pflanzenk Pflanzen 2002, 109, 252-263.
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.