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2005 | 14 | 5 |
Tytuł artykułu

Biodegradation of hexamethylenetetramine in anaerobic baffled reactor

Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
Due to its structure, hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) is a slowly biodegradable substance, hydrolysing in acid environment to ammonium and formaldehyde. Formaldehyde is toxic under normal conditions for biological treatment processes. Following an adaptation, a formaldehyde concentration of 1000 mg·l⁻¹ may become biodegradable both in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Acidic conditions for hydrolysis may be created chemically or by using natural biological treatment processes. The process of nitrification may be used in aerobic treatment, when H⁺ ions are created and pH drops below 5. For anaerobic treatment, the process of acidification may be used, when volatile fatty acids are formed and pH of the environment is decreasing. This work examines HMT degradation in an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR). Spatial segregation of individual anaerobic degradation phases was used in the ABR, when hydrolysis and acidification in the first reactor compartments are accompanied by low pH values in these compartments. ABR performance was compared with UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge bed) reactor performance working under the same conditions. The removal efficiency of 95.8% HMT in ABR reactor and of 85.4% in UASB reactor, respectively, was measured at the organic loading 4 kg·m⁻³·d⁻¹ and retention time 84 hours. 98% overall COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal was measured in ABR reactor and 95.6% in UASB reactor. The ABR proved to be the appropriate reactor for HMT removal. Better results of HMT removal in the ABR reactor in comparison with the UASB reactor were proved.
Wydawca
-
Rocznik
Tom
14
Numer
5
Opis fizyczny
p.585-591,fig.,ref.
Twórcy
autor
  • Slovak University of Technology, Radlinskeho 9, 812 37 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
autor
autor
autor
Bibliografia
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  • 4. DRTIL M., TÖLGYESSY J., BODÍK I. Simultaneous nitrification – denitrification in activated sludge process combined with bioflim cultivation. Stud. Environ. Sci. 42, 65, 1991.
  • 5. PAINTER H. A., KING E. F. The need for applying stability tests in biodegradability assessments., Chemosphere 15, 471, 1986.
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  • 8. VIDAL G., JIANG Z. P., OMIL F., THALASSO F., MÉNDEZ R., LEMA J. M. Continuous anaerobic treatment of wastewaters containing formaldehyde and urea. Biores. Technol. 70, 283, 1999.
  • 9. GONZALES-GIL G., KLEEREBEZEM R., LETTINGA G. Formaldehyde toxicity in anaerobic system. Wat. Sci. Technol. 42, (5-6), 223, 2000.
  • 10. DOHANYOS, ZABRANSKA J., RUZICKOVA M., JENICEK P. Upflow anaerobic biofilm reactor for the treatment of wastewater containing hexamethylenetetramine., In Proceedings of the Second International Specialized Conference on Biofilm Reactors, 29.9.- 1.10., Paris, pp 761-766, 1993.
  • 11. HUTNAN M., DRTIL M., KUFFA R., MRAFKOVA L. Behaviour of anaerobic baffled reactor treating partly acidified or easy acidifying wastewater. Chem. Papers 52, (5), 699, 1998.
  • 12. HUTNAN M., DRTIL M., MRAFKOVÁ L., DERCO J., BUDAY J. Comparison of startup and wastewater treatment in UASB, hybrid and baffled reactor, Bioprocess Engineering 21, 439, 1999.
  • 13. MRAFKOVA L., HUTNAN M., DRTIL M. Behaviour of anaerobic baffled reactor treating nonacidified wastewater. Chem. Papers 54, (6b), 448, 2000.
  • 14. APHA (American Public Health Association) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 18th edition, APHA, Washington DC., 1992.
  • 15. TOMCIK P., MRAFKOVA L., BUSTIN D. Microanalytical determination of formaldehyde by direct titration with hydroxylamine using interdigitated microelectrode array biamperometric end-point indicator. Microchimica Acta 141, (1-2), 69, 2003.
  • 16. KAPP H. Schlammfalung mit hohem Feststoffehalt. Oldebourg Verlag, München, 1984.
  • 17. HUTNAN M., MRAFKOVA L., DRTIL M., DERCO J. Methanogenic and nonmethanogenic activity of granulated sludge in anaerobic baffled reactor. Chem. Papers 53, (6), 374, 1999.
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikatory
Identyfikator YADDA
bwmeta1.element.agro-article-c6edf06a-05c0-453d-9885-dfe7d20786fb
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