Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2014 | 62 |
Tytuł artykułu

Kłopotliwe derenie - Cornus alba L. i C. sericea L. (Cornaceae). Dwa gatunki czy jeden?

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Troublesome dogwoods - Cornus alba L. and C. sericea L. (Cornaceae). Two species or one?
Języki publikacji
The history of taxonomy and problems with identification of two very similar and closely related dogwoods Cornus alba and C. sericea are discussed. They were described by Linnaeus on the basis of flowering cultivated specimens of unknown origin. When characterizing their fruits, Linnaeus got the information from the older, “pre-Linnean”, literature and wrote that they were white in C. alba (Linné 1767) and black in C. sericea (Linné 1771). It was soon pointed out that both taxa had white fruits, however, their specific identity has not been questioned for a long time. Cornus alba and C. sericea are considered to be geographically isolated – the former is recorded from Siberia and NE Europe, while the latter from North America, but both dogwoods are often cultivated and naturalize in many places outside their natural ranges. In European dendrological literature, in which both plants are usually mentioned, there are permanent controversies concerning the differences between them. Attempts are still made to distinguish them, mainly on the basis of their stones and leaf shapes. Narrow stones and abruptly narrowed leaf apex have been attributed to C. alba, while broad stones have been said to be characteristic to C. sericea. Our analysis reveals that shapes of stones of discussed taxa are very variable and their ranges of variability overlap to a considerable extent. The similar kind of variability can be observed in the shape of leaves of both dogwoods. In C. alba leaf blades are most often broadly elliptic and abruptly narrowed, while in C. sericea they are most often broadly ovate and gradually narrowed at the apex. It must be said that there are also numerous exceptions to the above scheme. The filigree pattern of cuticle and the wax crystals on the abaxial leaf surface are sometimes useful for distinguishing C. alba and C. sericea. Unfortunately both features are also variable as those characterized above. Taking into consideration the great similarity of discussed dogwoods and difficulties with their identification, in our opinion the broad species concept of C. alba (including C. sericea) is most reliable and practical. However, as it appears from presented results, both taxa are not fully identical, so the rank of subspecies proposed by Wangerin (1910) – C. alba L. subsp. alba and C. alba subsp. stolonifera (Michx.) Wangerin, seems to be most appropriate in their case. It facilitates identification of wild plants of C. alba s.l. both in flowers and fruit as well as in the vegetative state. It also helps avoid controversy with the classification of cultivars of uncertain origin.
Opis fizyczny
  • Instytut Dendrologii, Polska Akademia Nauk, ul.Parkowa 5, 62-035 Kórnik
  • Instytut Dendrologii, Polska Akademia Nauk, ul.Parkowa 5, 62-035 Kórnik
  • Instytut Ochrony Roślin - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, ul.Władysława Węgorka 20, 60-318 Poznań
  • Russian Academy of Sciences, V.L.Komarov Botanical Institute, Prof.Popov Street 2, 197376 St.Petersburg, Russia
  • AMMAN J. 1739. Stirpium rariorum in imperio Rutheno sponte provenientium icones et descriptiones collectae ab Ioanne Ammano M. D. Petropoli, ex Typographia Academiae Scientiarum.
  • BALL P.V. 1968. Cornus L. W: Flora Europaea, 2. Tutin T.G., Heywood V.H., Burges N.A., Moore D.M., Valentine D.H., Walters S.M., Webb D.A. (red.). University Press, Cambridge, ss. 314–316.
  • BOIVIN B. 1967. Flora of prairie provinces. Part 1. Phytologia 15: 329–446.
  • CAPIELLO P., SHADOW D. 2005. Dogwoods: the genus Cornus. Timber Press, Portland.
  • EYDE R.H. 1987. The case for keeping Cornus in broad Linnaean sense. Systematic Botany 12(4): 505–518.
  • EYDE R.H. 1988. Comprehending Cornus: Puzzles and progress in the systematics of the dogwoods. Botanical Review 54(3): 233–351.
  • FARWELL O.A. 1931. Concerning some species of Cornus of Philip Miller. Rhodora 33: 68–72.
  • FOSBERG F.R. 1942. Cornus sericea L. (C. stolonifera Michx.). Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 69(8): 583–589.
  • HARDIN J.W., MURREL Z.E. 1997. Foliar micromorphology of Cornus. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 124(2): 124–139.
  • HÄMET-AHTI L., PALMÉN A., ALANKO P., TIGERSTEDT P.M.A. 1992. Suomen puu- ja pensaskasvio. Dendrologian Seura – Dendrologiska Sällskapet r.y., Helsinki.
  • HEGI G. 1926. Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa, 5(2). Carl Hansen Verlag, München, ss. 1540–1556.
  • HOLUB J. 1982. Poznámky k slovenským zástupcům řádu Cornales II. Zprávy Československé Botanické Společnosti 17(1): 1–24.
  • DE JONG P.C., ILSINK L.K.J. 1995. Cornus – Kornoelje. Dendroflora 32: 24–57.
  • KARTESZ J.T. 1994. A synonimized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland, 1. 2nd Edition. Timber Press, Portland.
  • KARTESZ J.T. 2014. The Biota of North America Program (BONAP). Taxonomic Data Center. Chapel Hill, N.C. [maps generated from Kartesz, J.T. 2014. Floristic Synthesis of North America, Version 1.0. Biota of North America Program (BONAP); [Dostęp 27.09.2014].
  • KOEHNE E. 1893. Deutsche Dendrologie. Ferdinand Enke, Stuttgart.
  • KOEHNE E. 1903. Die Section Microcarpium der Gattung Cornus. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Dendrologischen Gesellschaft 12: 27–50.
  • LINNÉ C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Impensis Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae.
  • LINNÉ C. 1767. Mantissa Plantarum. Impensis Direct. Larentii Salvii, Holmiae.
  • LINNÉ C. 1771. Mantissa Plantarum altera. Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae.
  • LINNÉ C. 1774. Systema Vegatabilium. 13th ed. J. A. Murray. Typis et impensis Jo. Chr. Dietrich, Gottingae et Gothae.
  • MABBERLEY D.J. 2009. Mabberley’s Plant-Book. 3th ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • MCNEILL J.R., BARRIE F.R., BUCK W.R., DEMOULIN V., GREUTER W., HAWKSWOR TH D.L., HERENDEEN P.S., KNAPP S., MARHOLD K., PRADO J., PRUD’HOMME VAN REINE W.F., SMITH G.F., WIERSEMA J.H., TURLAND N.J. (red.). 2012. International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code). Regnum Vegetabile 154. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein.
  • MICHAUX A. 1803. Flora boreali-americana: sistens caracteres plantarum quas in America septentrionali collegit et detexit Andreas Michaux, 1. Typis Caroli Crapelet, Parisiis, Argentorati. MILLER P. 1768. The Gardeners Dictionary. 8th ed. John and Francis Rivington, London.
  • MURREL Z.E. 1993. Phylogenetic Relationships in Cornus (Cornales). Systematic Botany 18(3): 469–495.
  • PLUKENET L. 1692. Phytographia. Pars tertia. Londini.
  • REHDER A. 1927. Manual of cultivated trees and shrubs. The Macmillan Company, New York.
  • RICKETT H.W. 1934. Cornus amomum and C. candidissima. Rhodora 36: 269–274.
  • ROLOFF A., BÄRTELS S. 2014. Flora der Gehölze. 4. Aufl. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.
  • SCHNEIDER C.K. 1909. Handbuch der Laubholzkunde, 2. Gustav Fischer, Jena.
  • SCHULZ B. 2012. Die Gattung Cornus (Cornaceae), Hartriegel und Kornelkirsche. Teil 3: Die kleinfrüchtigen Hartriegel (Untergattung Kraniopsis). Mitteilungen der Deutschen Dendrologischen Gesellschaft 97: 91–132.
  • SCHULZ B. 2014. Gehölzbestimmung im Winter mit Knospen und Zweigen. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.
  • SENETA W. 1994. Drzewa i krzewy liściaste, 2. Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Warszawa.
  • WANGERIN W. 1910. Cornaceae. W: Das Pflanzenreich. Regni Vegetabilis Conspectus, 4, 229. Engler A. (red.). Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, ss. 1–110.
  • WESTERKAMP C., DEMMELMEYER H. 1997. Blattoberflächen mitteleuropäischer Laubgehölze. Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin–Stuttgart.
  • WOŹNICKA A., MELOSIK I., MOROZOWSKA M. 2014. Quantitative and qualitative differences in morphological traits of endocarps revealed between Cornus L. species. Plant Systematics and Evolution [DOI 10.1007/s00606- 014-1073-1 – preprint, bez numeru zeszytu i stron, wykorzystany 28.11.2014 r.].
  • XIANG Q.-Y., THOMAS D.H., ZHANG W., MANCHESTER S.R., MURREL Z. 2006. Species level phylogeny of the genus Cornus (Cornaceae) based on molecular and morphological evidence – implication for taxonomy and Tertiary intercontinental migration. Taxon 55(1): 9–30.
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.