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2009 | 69 | 4 |
Tytuł artykułu

Xenon blocks AMPA and NMDA receptor channels by different mechanisms

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The noble gas xenon (Xe) inhibits not only NMDA receptors (NMDARs), but also the two other subtypes of glutamate receptor i.e. AMPA (AMPARs) and kainate receptors. Preliminary studies on AMPARs suggest that Xe sensitivity might be coupled to receptor desensitization. In order to find out if this hypothesis can be applied to all glutamate receptors, we analyzed additional “non-desensitizing” AMPARs mutants and compared these with homologous mutants of NMDARs. Membrane currents of Neuro2A or SH-SY5Y cells transfected with cDNA encoding AMPA- or NMDA receptors were investigated by whole cell recordings under voltage clamp conditions. Agonists (glutamate, kainate, NMDA) were applied to the cells by means of a rapid perfusion system. Xenon was preincubated for 20 s before testing it in combination with the particular agonist. Xe (3.5 mM) reduced peak and plateau currents of AMPA wild-type receptors [GluR1(i); GluR2(i,Q)], activated for 5 s with 3 mM glutamate, by 45 and 55%, respectively. With mutant AMPARs showing greatly diminished or abolished desensitization i.e. GluR1(i)_L497Y, GluR1(i)_A636T(Lc), GluR2(i,Q)_R649E and GluR2(i,Q)_A643T(Lc), the reduction by Xe was significantly smaller and varied by between 4 and 20%. In contrast, no difference in the blocking capacity of Xe was observed comparing wild-type NR1-1a/NR2A receptors with receptors having point mutations within NR2A that substantially slowed (NR2A_A651T(Lc)) or accelerated (NR2A_M823W) receptor desensitization. Thus, our data indicate that in AMPARs channel blockade by Xe is related to desensitization, whereas in NMDARs no evidence for such a relation was found. Thus, Xe seems to exert its inhibiting effect on various ionotropic glutamate receptors by different molecular mechanisms.
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  • Department of Anaesthesiology, SLK-Kliniken Heilbronn, Bad Friedrichshall, Germany
  • Department of Anaesthesiology, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany
  • Department of Anaesthesiology, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany
  • Department of Anaesthesiology, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany
  • Department of Anaesthesiology, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany
  • Department of Anaesthesiology, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany
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