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2016 | 69 | 4 |
Tytuł artykułu

Analysis of yield and plant traits of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivated in temperate region in light of the possibilities of sowing in arid areas

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Warianty tytułu
PL
Analiza plonowania i cech morfologicznych rzepaku (Brassica napus L.) uprawianego w strefie klimatu umiarkowanego, w świetle możliwości siewu w klimacie suchym
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
This work is a review of selected literature on the species of Brassica with the greatest economic significance. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera) currently ranks third worldwide among oilseed crops used for oil production and is the most important in the temperate zone. The manifold uses of rape include not only human consumption of oil, but also the use of post-extraction meal to feed livestock as well as industrial applications as a source of bioenergy or cellulose. The improvement in the economic position of rape among crop plants is also due to the doubling of its yield between 1970 and 2009; the average annual increase in seed yield worldwide was 27 kg ha−1 yr−1. The yield level in Europe exceeds the average yields achieved in the world, particularly in Asia. Recently, the cultivation of oilseed rape was started on a relatively large acreage in Iran where the yield amounted 2.1 t ha−1, exceeding the yields of China and India. In Poland, the acreage of oilseed rape cultivation between 1965 and 2013 increased 3–4 times, and during this period the annual increase in seed yield was 29 kg ha−1 yr−1. Under the field conditions of the temperate climate zone, winter oilseed rape yield is mainly determined by agro-climatic conditions during the growing period, the level of nitrogen fertilization, and the production potential of varieties, which is currently highest in hybrids. There is a noticeable tendency of hybrids towards formation of more siliques by individual oilseed plants. Different production categories of plants appear in a rape crop. Semi-dwarf varieties of winter rapeseed are distinguished by greater silique density, particularly on the main shoot. Moreover, these hybrids are characterized by faster growth of the root system, which enables them to take up nitrogen from the soil more efficiently.
PL
Praca stanowi przegląd wybranych pozycji literatury poświęconej uprawnym gatunkom z rodzaju Brassica. Skoncentrowana jest na wiodącym gospodarczo gatunku – kapusta rzepak (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera). Aktualnie rzepak to 3-cia roślina oleista świata, a najważniejsza dla umiarkowanej strefy klimatycznej. Głównym sposobem wykorzystania rzepaku jest przemysł spożywczy, ale wykorzystuje się również śrutę poekstrakcyjną w żywieniu zwierząt. Ważne jest również zastosowanie przemysłowe jako źródła bioenergii lub celulozy. Poprawa pozycji gospodarczej rzepaku wśród roślin rolniczych wynika także z podwojenia poziomu plonowania w okresie 1970–2009, gdy średnioroczny wzrost plonu nasion w skali świata wyniósł 27 kg ha−1 rok−1. W Polsce areał rzepaku w latach 1965–2013 wzrósł 3–4 krotnie, a coroczny przyrost plonu nasion zwiększał się o 29 kg ha−1 rok−1. W Europie poziom plonowania jest wyższy niż w świecie, a zwłaszcza w Azji. W ostatnim czasie podjęto uprawę rzepaku w Iranie, gdzie na stosunkowo dużym areale uzyskano plony nasion w wysokości 2.1 t ha−1, co przewyższa poziom plonowania w Chinach i Indiach. Plonowanie rzepaku ozimego w warunkach polowych strefy klimatu umiarkowanego determinują głównie warunki agroklimatyczne okresu wegetacji, poziom nawożenia azotem i potencjał produkcyjny odmian – aktualnie najwyższy u odmian mieszańcowych. Odmiany półkarłowe rzepaku ozimego odznaczają się większym zagęszczeniem łuszczyn, zwłaszcza na pędzie głównym. Ponadto mieszańce cechują się szybszym wzrostem systemu korzeniowego, który ma zdolność do lepszego pobierania azotu z gleby.
Słowa kluczowe
Wydawca
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Czasopismo
Rocznik
Tom
69
Numer
4
Opis fizyczny
Article 1696 [13p.], ref.
Twórcy
autor
  • Department of Crop Production, Institute of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Economics, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Al. Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Krakow, Poland
  • Department of Crop Production, Institute of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Economics, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Al. Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Krakow, Poland
autor
  • Department of Crop Production, Institute of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Economics, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Al. Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Krakow, Poland
  • Department of Crop Production, Institute of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Economics, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Al. Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Krakow, Poland
autor
  • Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agronomy and Bioengineering, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Dojazd 1, 60-632 Poznan, Poland
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