Historia Nikickiego Ogrodu Botanicznego
Treść / Zawartość
History of the Nikita Botanical Gardens
In 2012 the Nikita Botanical Gardens celebrated their 200th Anniversary. Today it is one of the oldest and best botanical gardens in the Ukraine. The southern Crimean coast is most attractive in both its landscape and natural beauty. Tracing the history of the Nikita Botanical Gardens it is evident that nature and culture are intertwined, which influenced the decision to establish the botanical garden in the area of the villages of Nikita and Magarach, as suitable locations for this type of institution, and helped to form today’s layout, composition and function. The founding of the garden at the beginning of the 19th Century was connected to the fact that the Crimea was annexed to Russia in 1783. The Crimea as a new territory aroused great interest amongst the wealthy and in particular the Tsars, who recognised the dormant economic potential, and treated the peninsula as access to a warm water sea port as strategic both militarily and in terms of trade. The Black Sea ports were known as Russia’s ‘southern window’, opening up access to Europe and the World. With considerable cooperation from experienced people from abroad, the development of the Crimea began. The climate, similar to that of the Mediterranean, linked to the multi-cultural nature of the place, add to its colour. The unique climate and its exotic atmosphere meant that there was an increased interest in the Crimea, and this resulted in the fact that aristocrats came here as well as artists, and soon summer residences were built, together with their accompanying parks. In the immediate vicinity of Nikita were built in 1811 the palace of Armand- Emmanuel de Richelieu in Gurzuf (after Richelieu’s return to France in 1814 Prince Michael S. Voroncov became it’s owner); the palace and park at Alupka established between 1828–1848 were also owned by Voroncov; Livadia – belonging to Leon Potocki (from 1834, and from 1860 the residence of Tsar Alexander II). This unique part of the world was also of interest to artists who visited or lived on the Crimean coast, among others Alexander Griboedov, Adam Mickiewicz, Ivan Muraviev-Apostol and Alexander Pushkin. The Nikita Botanical Gardens were established in 1812 as a centre of research. The key aim, for which the institution was founded, was to stimulate the growth of agriculture (particularly in southern Russia) by introducing and selecting new plants for cultivation. The founder of the garden was A.E. Richelieu, and the first director was Christian Steven. Steven’s work conducted at the botanical garden also directly meant that the flora of the Crimea and the Caucasus were described. The four sections of the garden which were landscaped parks, were also botanical collections and still survive today. The oldest of these, the Lower Park was established in Steven’s time (from 1812), then the Upper Park (established for the 75th Anniversary of the garden), the Coastal Park (for the 100th Anniversary) and the Montedor Park (for the 150th Anniversary).
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