Dynamics of lake morphometry and bathymetry in various hydrological conditions
During recent decades, human impact on lake ecosystems has increased due to intensification of agriculture, irrigation, water consumption, and electrical purposes. Particularly strong changes have been observed in shallow lakes, which are more sensitive to environmental changes and characterized by unfavourable morphometric parameters. The majority of transformations within a lake associated with changes in water level, progressing degradation, or plant succession leading to lake disappearance take place within the littoral zone. The aim of this study was to examine how human pressure, such as water level reduction, affect the surface and water volume of lakes, and estimate the rate and the extent of water loss from lakes during 1940-2008, and predict their potential changes over the next years. The importance of integrating vertical and horizontal considerations in the management of shallow lakes was illustrated. The study was carried out in the freshwater, postglacial lakes Niepruszewskie and Tomickie, located in the central-western agricultural region of Poland. The research comprised analyses of the lakes’ morphometry base on topographic maps, aerial photos, GPS measurements, and data from bathymetric plans and morphometric cards. The study has shown that the observed transformations in the examined lakes are multidirectional and the entire process varies in changing trophic and hydrological conditions. The increase of water retention in the water body increased the lake area, but at the same time accelerated the sedimentation process of organic matter and gradual lake shallowing at the accompanying expansion of the littoral zone area. During almost 70 years, the area of Lake Niepruszewskie shrank by 9%. The shallowing rate, which is not directly visible, was about three times as fast as the contraction of the area itself. In the case of the second of the examined lakes, shallowing and overgrowing processes follow the same course, which will lead to the disappearance of the lake within less than 56 years. The area of Lake Tomickie decreased almost twofold during almost 70 years. Our study shows that analysis of the lake surface alone is insufficient to assess directions of lake development and shrinking.
- Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Piątkowska 94C, 60-649 Poznań, Poland
- Institute of Physical Geography and Environmental Planning, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dziegielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań, Poland
- Department of Water and Soil Analysis, Adam Mickiewicz University, Drzymały 24, 60-613 Poznań, Poland
- 1. KLING G.W., KIPPHUT G.W., MILLER M.M., O’BRIEN W.J. Integration of lakes and streams in a landscape perspective: the importance of material processing on spatial patterns and temporal coherence. Fresh. Biol. 43, 477, 2000.
- 2. NEAL C., JARVIE H.P., LOVE A., NEAL M., WICKHAM H., HARMAN S. Water quality along a river continuum subject to point and diffuse sources and canal water interchange. J Hydrol. 350, (3-4), 154, 2008.
- 3. NAIMAN R.J. Characteristics of sediment and organic carbon export from pristine boreal forest watersheds. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 39, 1699, 1982.
- 4. PARTANEN S., LUOTO M., HELLSTEN S. Habitat level determinants of emergent macrophyte occurrence, extension and change in two large boreal lakes in Finland Aquatic Botany, 90, 261, 2009.
- 5. HOLLIS G.E., STEVENSON A.C. The physical basis of the Lake Mikri Prespa systems: geology, climate and water quality. Hydrobiologia 351, 1, 1997.
- 6. CHAPMAN C.A., CHAPMAN L.J. Deforestation in tropical Africa: impacts on aquatic ecosystems. In: Crisman T.L., Chapman L.J., Chapman C.A., Kaufman L.S. (Eds.), Conservation, Ecology, and Management of African Freshwaters. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL, pp. 229-246, 2003.
- 7. DEFRA The protection of waters against pollution from agriculture. Consultation on implementation of the Nitrates Directive. ADAS Report, England, 56, 2007.
- 8. NIEDZIELSKI P., SIEPAK J., SIEPAK M., KRASKA M. Occurrence of arsenic, antimony and selenium in surface waters of Drawienski National Park. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 11, (1), 41, 2002.
- 9. MITRAKI C., CRISMAN T.L., ZALIDIS G. Lake Koronia: shift from autotrophy to heterotrophy with cultural eutrophication and progressive water-level reduction. Limnologica 34, 110, 2004.
- 10. PUACZ W., SZAHUN W., SIEPAK J., SOBCZYNSKI T. Determination of selected sulphur speciation forms in fresh water lakes and bottom sediments. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 10, (5), 365, 2001.
- 11. EUROPEAN COMMISSION Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council – Establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy. Brussels, Belgium, 23 October 2000.
- 12. LAWNICZAK A.E., ZBIERSKA J., KUPIEC J. Changes of nutrient concentrations in water sensitive to nitrate pollution from agricultural sources in the Samica Stęszewska River catchment. An. of War. Univ. of L. Sci., Land Recl. 40, 15, 2008.
- 13. EUROPEAN COMMISION Council Directive concerning the protection of waters against pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources 91/676/EEC, Off. J. Eur. Commun. L375 31/12/1991: 1-8, 1991.
- 14. SCHEFFER M. Ecology of Shallow Lakes. Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 357, 1998.
- 15. WETZEL R.G. Limnology: Lake and River Ecosystems. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 1006, 2001.
- 16. CHOINSKI A. Polish Lake Catologue. Adam Mickiewicz University Publishing, Poznan, pp. 599, 2006 [In Polish].
- 17. CHOINSKI A. Physical limnology of Poland. Adam Mickiewicz University Publishing, Poznan, pp. 547, 2007 [In Polish].
- 18. REBELO L.-M., FINLAYSON C.M., NAGABHATLA N. Remote sensing and GIS for wetland inventory, mapping and change analysis. J.of Env. Manag. 90, 2144, 2009.
- 19. CRISMAN T.L., MITRAKI CH., ZALIDIS G. Integrating vertical and horizontal approaches for management of shallow lakes and wetlands. Ecol. Eng. 24, 379, 2005.
- 20. CHOINSKI A., PTAK M. Lake infill as the main factor leading to lake’s disappearance. Polish J. of Environ. Stud. 18, (3), 347, 2009.
- 21. MUNYANEZA O., WALI U.G., UHLENBROOK S., MASKEY S., MLOTHA M.J. Water level monitoring using radar remote sensing data: Application to Lake Kivu, central Africa. Phys. Chem. Earth. 34, 722, 2009.
- 22. KONDRACKI J. Polish Regional Geography, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa, pp. 440, 2000 [In Polish].
- 23. GOGOŁEK W. Explanation of the detailed geological map of Poland 1: 50 000. Arkusz Buk. Wydawnictwa Geologiczne, Warszawa. 1993 [In Polish].
- 24. LAWNICZAK A.E., CHOINSKI A., ZBIERSKA J., SZCZEPANIAK W. Response of emergent macrophytes to hydrological changes in a shallow lake, with special reference to nutrient cycling. Hydrobiologia, 656, 243, 2010.
- 25. ZBIERSKA J., MURAT-BŁAŻEJEWSKA S., SZOSZKIEWICZ K., LAWNICZAK A.E. The nutrients balance in Wielkopolska agro-ecosystems with respect to water quality protection using the Samica Stęszewska river watershed as example. Wyd. AR, Poznan, pp. 133, 2002 [In Polish].
- 26. LAWNICZAK A.E., ZBIERSKA J., CHOINSKI A. Ecological status assessment of lakes from the point of view of Water Framework Directive. Zesz. Post. Nauk Rol. 540, 55, 2009 [In Polish].
- 27. WETZEL R.G., LIKENS G.E. Limnological Analyses. 3rd Ed. Springer, New York, pp. 429, 2000.
- 28. IIF. Bathymetric map of Lake Niepruszewskie. Institute of Inland Fisheries, Olsztyn, 1961.
- 29. IIF. Bathymetric map of Lake Tomickie. Institute of Inland Fisheries, Olsztyn, 1961.
- 30. ROSENQVIST A., FINLAYSON C.M., LOWRY J., TAYLOR D. The potential of long wavelength satellite borne radar to support implementation of the Ramsar Wetlands Convention. Aqu.Cons.: Marine and Fresh.Ecos. 17, 229, 2007.
- 31. HELLSTEN S., KETO A., SUORANIEMI M., PARTANEN S. Long term changes in the aquatic vegetation of Lake Paijanne, Southern Finland. Verh. Int. Ver. Limnol. 29, 1167, 2006.
- 32. MAEMETS H., FREIBERG L. Characteristics of reeds on Lake Peipsi and the floristic consequences of their expansion. Limnologica 34, 83, 2004.
- 33. BRENNER M., KEENAN L.W., MILLER S.J., SCHELSKE C.L. Spatial and temporal patterns of sediment and nutrient accumulation in shallow lakes of the Upper St. Johns River Basin, Florida. Wetlands Ecol. Manag. 6, 221, 1999.
- 34. CHOINSKI A. Changes in bathymetry of Maly Staw and Wielki Staw in the Karkonosze (Giant) Mountains. Limnological Review 3, 37, 2003.
- 35. HAIRSINE P. Controlling sediment and nutrient movement within catchments. Industry report, Cooperative Research Centre for Hydrology, Melbourne, 1997.
- 36. SYARIMAN S., SYARIMAN P. Sedimentation control: part II. Intensive measures the inside of the Mrica reservoir, Central Java. J. of App. Sc. Env. San. 3, (1), 17, 2008.
- 37. NOWACKA A., PTAK M. The change of the surface lakes on lake district wielkopolsko-kujawskie in XX age. Bad. Fizj. nad Pol Zach. Seria A – Geog. Fiz. 58, 149, 2007 [In Polish].
- 38. ZBIERSKA J., LAWNICZAK A.E. Impact of through-flow lakes on the quality of water in the Samica Stęszewska River. Zesz. Nauk. A.R. Krakow, Inż. Środ. 433, 7, 2006 [In Polish].
- 39. WOSA. Climate of Poland. PWN, Warszawa, pp. 303, 1999 [In Polish].