Enrichment of gluten-free rolls with amaranth and flaxseed increases the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the bones of rats
Treść / Zawartość
The utilization of nutrients present in amaranth flour and flaxseed, used as ingredients in gluten-free rolls, was examined in rats. The chemical composition of amaranth flour, flaxseed and enriched rolls was compared. In the nutritional study Wistar rats were fed diets consisting solely of airdried gluten-free rolls and water, to check the hypothesis that the enrichment of gluten-free rolls with flaxseed or amaranth can improve biochemical indices in rats. The animals were divided into 3 groups of 6 rats. Group I was fed control (not enriched) rolls, group II and group III were fed amaranth and flaxseed, respectively, enriched rolls. The experiment was conducted over 30 days. At the end of the experiment, the blood and organs were removed from the anesthetized rats. The lipid profile and content of some elements were measured in blood serum, while other tissues were checked for Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Na, K, Cu, Zn and Mn content. Weight gain was observed only in treatment groups of animals. Both applied ingredients decreased the TC and HDL-cholesterol content of serum in both treatment groups of animals. They also increased Ca content in the serum of the rodents. The concentration of calcium and phosphorus was significantly higher in the bones of rats fed with diets with amaranth or flaxseed enriched rolls.
- 1. AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis, 18-th Edition, Gaithersburg, Association of O fficial Analytical Chemists International, 2006.
- 2. Bressani R., Sánchez-Marroquín A., Morales E., Chemical composition of grain amaranth cultivars and effects of processing on their nutritional quality. Food. Rev. Int., 1992, 8, 23–49.
- 3. Brylińska J, Kwiatkowska J. Laboratory animals. Breeding and experimental methods. 1996, Universitatis, Cracow, pp. 164–168 (in Polish).
- 4. Close B., Banister K., Baumans V., Bernoth E.M., Bromage N., Bunyan J., Erhardt W., Flcknell P., Gregory N., Hackbarth H., Morton D., Warwick C., Recommendations for euthanasia of experimental animals: part two. Lab. Anim., 1997, 31, 132.
- 5. Coudray C., Feillet-Coudray C., Grizard D., Tressol JC., Gueux E., Rayssiguier Y., Fractional intestinal absorption of magnesium is directly proportional to dietary magnesium intake in rats. J. Nutr., 2002, 132, 2043–2047.
- 6. Czerwinski J., Bartnikowska E., Leontowicz H., Lange E., Leontowicz M., Katrich E., Trakhtenberg S., Gorinstein S., Oat (Avena sativa L.) and amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) meals positively affect plasma lipid profile in rats fed cholesterolcontaining diets. J. Nutr. Biochem., 2004, 15, 622–629.
- 7. Davidson I., Hydrolysis of samples for amino acid analysis. 2003, in: Methods in Molecular Biology 211. Protein Sequencing Protocols 2nd ed. (ed. B.J. Smith). Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey, pp. 111–122
- 8. E N-13804:2002. Food products. Determination of trace elements. Criteria (in Polish).
- 9. E N-13805:2003. Food products. Determination of trace elements. Pressure mineralisation (in Polish).
- 10. E N-14084:2003. Food products. Determination of trace elements. Determination of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu and Fe content by the use of atomic adsorption spectroscopy (AAS) after microwave mineralization (in Polish).
- 11. FAO-WHO, Protein quality evaluation. report of a joint FAOWHO expert consultation. Technical report, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, 1991.
- 12. Gambuś H., Mikulec A., Gambuś F., Pisulewski P., Perspectives of flaxseed utilisation in baking. Pol. J. Food. Nutr. Sci., 2004, 13, 21–27.
- 13. Gambuś H., Sikora M., Ziobro R., The effect of composition of hydrocolloids on properties of gluten-free bread. Acta Sci. Pol.: Technol. Alimentaria, 2007, 6, 61–74.
- 14. Harland B.F., Dietary fibre and mineral bioavailability. Nutr. Res. Rev. 1989, 2, 133–147.
- 15. Kupper C., Dietary guidelines and implementation for celiac disease. Gastroenterology, 2005, 128, 121–127.
- 16. Martirosyan D.M., Miroshnichenko L.A., Kulakova S.N., Pogojeva A.V., Zoloedov V.I., Amaranth oil application for coronary heart disease and hypertension. Lipids Health Dis., 2007, 6, 1.
- 17. Mora S., Weber G., Barera G., Bellini G., Pasolini D., Prinster C., Bianchi C., Chiumello G., Effect of gluten-free diet on bone mineral content in growing patients with celiac disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 1993, 57, 224–228.
- 18. O omah B.D., Flaxseed as a functional food source. J. Sci. Food. Agric., 2001, 81, 889–894.
- 19. Písaøíková B., Kráèmar S., Herzig I., Amino acid contents and biological value of protein in various amaranth species. Czech. J. Anim. Sci., 2005, 50, 169–174.
- 20. Presutti R.J., Cangemi J.R., Cassidy H.D., Hill D.A., Celiac disease. Am. Fam. Physician, 2007, 76, 1795–1802.
- 21. Qureshi A.A., Lehmann J.W., Peterson D.M., Amaranth and its oil inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis in 6-week-old female chickens. J. Nutr., 1996, 1972–1978.
- 22. Rangarajan A., Chenoweth W.A., Kelly J.F., Agee K.M., Iron bioavailability from Amaranthus species: 2 – Evaluation using haemoglobin repletion in anaemic rats. J. Sci. Food Agr., 1998, 78, 274–280.
- 23. Reeves P.G., Nielsen, F.H., Fahey G.C. Jr., AIN-93 purified diets for laboratory rodents: Final report of the American Institute of Nutrition ad hoc writing committee on the reformulation of the AIN-76A rodent diet. J. Nutr., 1993, 123, 1939–1951.
- 24. Tarpila A., Wennberg T., Tarpila S., Flaxseed as a functional food. Curr. Topics Nutraceutical Res., 2005, 3, 167–188.
- 25. Thompson T., Folate, iron and dietary fibre contents of the gluten – free diet. J. Am. Diet. Assoc., 2000, 100, 1389–1396.
- 26. Vijaimohan K., Jainu M., Sabitha K.E., Subramaniyam S., Anandhan C., Devi C.S.S., Beneficial effects of alpha linolenic acid rich flaxseed oil on growth performance and hepatic cholesterol metabolism in high fat diet fed rats. Life Sci., 2006, 79, 448–454.
- 27. Whittaker P., Ologunde M.O., Study of iron bioavailability in a native Nigerian grain amaranth cereal for young children using a rat model. Cereal Chem., 1990, 67, 505–508.
- 28. Zraly Z., Pisarikova B., Hudcova H., Trckova M., Herzig I., Effect of feeding amaranth on growth efficiency and health of market pigs. Acta Vet., 2004, 73, 437–444.
Rekord w opracowaniu