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1957 | 02 | 2-3 |
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Szkielet niedźwiedzia jaskiniowego (Ursus spelaeus Rosenmuller) z jaskini pod Kopą Magury (Tatry)

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Warianty tytułu
Skeleton of a cave bear (Ursus spelaeus Rosenmuller) from a cave under the mount Kopa Magury in the Tatra, Poland
RU
Skelet peshhernogo medvedja (Ursus spelaeus Rosenmuller) iz Peshhery pod kopojj magury (Tatry Pol'sha)
Języki publikacji
PL
Abstrakty
PL
Autor opisuje szkielet pojedynczego osobnika niedźwiedzia jaskiniowego, znaleziony w jaskini pod Kopą Magury (Tatry). Szczegółowo opracowane są kości długie kończyn w porównaniu z kośćmi szkieletów z Wildkirchli , z Winden ,z Salzofen, a także z kośćmi szkieletu Ursus deningeri (Hundsheim) i niedźwiedzia brunatnego. Kości długie szkieletu z Magury : l) są stosunkowo smukłe i długie,2) kości te kończyny tylnej są niewiele dłuższe od kości kończyny przedniej, 3) odcinki proksymalne kończyn (hurnerus i femur) są stosunkowo znacznie dłuższe niż odcinki dystalne (radius i tibia). Na podstawie przeprowadzonego porównania autor potwierdza wątpliwości, czy w szkielecie z Wildkirchli wszystkie kości należały do jednego osobnika.
EN
Desoription is given of the skeleton of one individual of cave bear, which was found in a Tatra cave under the Mount Kopa Magury, 1490 m a.s. l. Only three more or less completes keletons have hitherto been found of cave bears of normal dimensions, I.e.. one third to one fourth larger than a well grown adult brown bear. Of these three finds , two were extracted from caves in the Alps (Wildkirchli and Winden) , the third one from cave Magura in the Tatra Mts. Both the Alpine skeletons differ very conspicuously from that of Magura. The dissimilarity is strongest in the case of the Wildkirchli skeleton, so much so as to make F. Koby and E. Fritz (1950) and K. Ehrenberg (1955) doubt whether all bones of th at find belonged to the same individual. The present writer's osteological studies have fully confirmed these doubts. In the absence of the femur, the Winden skeleton is not comple enough to be of full serviceability here. The Magura skeleton belonging to a moderately large and rather aged individual (strongly worn molars) includes: 1) fragments of skull with dentition and detached teeth ; 2) 11 vertebrae (third, fifth and sixth cervicals : first , fourth , seventh, eleventh and fourteenth thoracics ; fifth and sixth lumbars ; first sacral) and numerous fragmentary ribs ; 3) fragments of shoulders and of pelvis. and long limb bones. Owing to the inadequate state of preservation, detailed comparative studies of the long bones only were possible to the present writer. In the Magura skeletonthese bones are as stated here below: Humerus - relatively long (443 mm) and stender (those from Wildkirchli and Winden being 465 and 471 mm respectively). Downwards it widens out insignificantly (less so than the Wildkirchli and Winden specimens) , laterally tapering out rather strongly. Speleoidal features are predominant. Radius - relatively long (347 mm) and slender , more slender than those from Wildkirchli and Winden, displaying a number of speleoidal features. Ulna - long (403 mm) and stout as comparad with others, proximally particularly so, while distally it tapers rather strongly. Femur - shows more than the average length (490 mm) equalling that of the femur from Wildkirchli ; distally , however, it tapers off very prominently. It bears a typically speleoidal character. Tibia - longer (317 mm) than in the Wildkirchli (305 mm) or in the Winden (310 mm) specimens . Distally it tapers off rather strongly too. Some speleoidal features are to be noted. On the whole, the long bones of the Magura skeleton may be characterised as longer than average, sometimes attaining maximum dimensions , also more slender. mostly displaying speleoidal features. In what concerns the fore limb, namely the humerus /radius ratio in the Magura skeleton, the radius is 21.9 per cent shorter than the humerus. This is a higher difference index (the Wildkirchli and Winden skeletons excepted) than those of other fossil (19 and 15 per cent) or Recent skeletons (14.3 - 9.1 per cent). In length and shape (width and thickness) the proximal portion of this limb is comparable with that in Ursus arctos . The same cannot be said in respect to the distal portion where every index shows different values. To say, in the Magura skeleton the length, width and thickness indices for humerus (table 12 and 13) are 124, 123 and 125 per cent respcctively, being 130, 125 and 118 per cent for the radius. fore limb, since here the index differences in relation to the femur is 35.3 per cent (being 21.9 per cent in the fore limb). In other fossil bears this differences is smaller - 31 per cent in the Salzofen and Hundsheim skeletons - and still smaller in Recent bears - 23.5 to 27.8 per cent (table 14). As compared with Ursus arctos, the width, and still more so, the thickness indices of these bones are higher than the length indices: Magura, femur - width 135%, length 124% Magma, tibia - width 129%, length 105% , thickness 137.7%. These figures indicate that they are less slender than the corresponding bones in Recent forms, more particularly so in the case of tibia . Upon comparison of the fore and hind limb indices (table 22) we can note small differences only occurring between the fossil (1.2 to 1.4 per cen t) as compared with Recent bears (2.4 to 4.6 per cent). In this respect , the Wildkirchli (0.6 per cent) and Winden (0.4 per cent) skeletons differ considerably , apparently strongly supporting the prevailing doubts as to whether these skeletal bones are all referable to single individ uals. On this evidence, a justifiable conclusion may be suggested that the physiological superiority of the fore limb in relation to the hind limb was quite insignificant . A comparison of the proximal parts with the distals shows the former to be much longer in the Magura skeleton, since the index difference is as much as 16.8 per cent. In the Salzofen and Hundsheim skeleton this difference is much smaller, being 14.6 and 13.4 per cent respectively , while it is still smaller in the Recent brown bear: 11.8 to 10.4 per cent. Admitting that Ursus deningeri (Lower Pleistocene) is the probable ancestor of Ursus spelaeus , an investigation of the Magura bear will suggest the following evolutionary trend of skeletal structure with respect to the long limb bones: l ) important elongation of all bones. 2) stronger elongation of proximal parts of limbs (approx .: 30 per cent in the humeral bone, 27 per cent in the femural). a virtually equal though smaller elongation of two distal parts of limbs (aprox, 19 per cent). The abbreviations used in the present paper are as follows : KE 42 - refers to the skeleton of the Recent brown bear, which has with details been described by K. Ehrenberg (1942) ; K E 55 - refers to the brown bear mentioned in Ehrenberg's paper of 1955 ; Zakł. Pal. Wrocław - is the abbreviated name referring to the skeleton of the brown bear, deposited in the Institute of Paleozoology at the Wrocław University, whose measurements are given here above: d - dexter, s- sinister , H - humerus, R - radius , F - femur, T - tibia . All measurements in millimeters.
RU
Słowa kluczowe
Wydawca
-
Rocznik
Tom
02
Numer
2-3
Opis fizyczny
s.183-224,tab.,wykr.,bibliogr.
Twórcy
autor
  • Institute of Paleozoology, Wroclaw University, Wroclaw, Poland
Bibliografia
  • ABEL O. 1923. Neue Rekonstruktion des Hohlenbaren. - Spelaol , Jb., 4, Wien . - 1939. Tiere der Vorzeit in ihren Lebensraum. Der Hohlenbar und seine Jagd. 9-33 . Berlin.
  • BORYSIAK A. A. 1930. Ursus spelaeus rossicus nov. n . C. R. Acad. Sci . URSS.Moskva .
  • EHRENBERG K . 1929. Zur Frage der systematischen und phylogenetischen Stellung der Barenreste von Hundsheim und Deutsch-Altenburg im Nieder- Osterreich. Palaeobiologica, 2, 213-221. Wien. -1931. Uber die ontogenetische Entwicklung des Hohlenbaren. Die Drachen- hóhle bei Mixnitz. 624-711. Wien. -1933. Ein fast vollstandiges Barenskellet aus dem A'lt-Diluvium von Hunds- heim in Nieder-Osterreich. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. 83, 48-52. Wien. -1942. Berichte uber Ausgrabungen in der Salzofenhohle im Toten Gebirge. 2: Untersuchungen uber umfassendere Skelettfunde als Beitrag zur Frage der Form- und Grossenverschiedenheiten zwischen Braunbar und Hohlenbar . Ibidem, 7, 5/6, 531-666. -1955. Uber Hohlenbaren und Barenhohlen. Ibidem, 95, 19-41.
  • HUTTER E. 1954/55. Der Hohlenbar von Markenstein , mit einer Vorbemerkung und Erganzungen von Kurt Ehrenberg. Ann. Naturhist. Mus., 60, 122-168. Wien.
  • KOBY F . ED. 1950. Les dimensions minima et maxima des os longs d 'Ursus spelaeus. Ecl. Geol, Helv ., 43, 2, p. 287. Basel,
  • KOBY F. ED. & FRITZ E. 1950. Les proportions des metacerpiens et des phalanges de la main d'Ursus spelaeus. Ibidem, 43, 2, 228-229.
  • LIPS R. 1930. Modifikationen im Zusammenhang von Funktion und Gelenkfliichenausbildung am Carpalsegment arctoider Saugetiere. Ztschr. Saugetierkunde, 5, 105-240. Berlin.
  • REYNOLDS S. H. 1906. A monograph of the British Pleistocene Mammalia - II, 2 The Bears. 21-25. Palaeont. Soc., London.
  • THENIUS E . 1951. Eine neue Rekonstruktion des Hohlenbaren (Ursus spelaeus Ros .). Sitzber. math.-naturwiss. Kl. Oster. Akad. Wiss., Abt. I, 160, 3/4 , 321-333. Wien.
  • ZAPFE H. 1939. Uber das Barenskelett aus dem Alt-Pleistozan von Hundsheim Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges., 88/89, 239-245. Wien.
  • ZWOLIŃSKI S. 1955. Tatrzański rejon jaskiniowy. Światowid, 21, 49-74. Warszawa.
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
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Identyfikator YADDA
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