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2013 | 35 | 09 |
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Salinity and drought interaction in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is affected by the genotype and plant growth stage

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Salinity and drought are important agro-environmental problems occurring separately as well as together with the combined occurrence increasing with time due to climate change. Screening of bread wheat genotypes against salinity or drought alone is common; however, little information is available on the response of wheat genotypes to a combination of these stresses. This study investigates the response of a salt-resistant (SARC-1) and a salt-sensitive (7-Cerros) wheat genotype to drought at different growth stages under non-saline (ECe 2.1 dS m-1) and saline soil (ECe 15 dS m-1) conditions. Drought was applied by withholding water for 21 days at a particular growth stage viz. tillering, booting, and grain filling stages. At booting stage measurements regarding water relations, leaf ionic composition and photosynthetic attributes were made. At maturity grain yield and different yield, components were recorded. Salinity and drought significantly decreased grain yield and different yield components with a higher decrease in the case of combined stress of salinity 9 drought. The complete drought treatment (drought at tillering + booting + grain filling stages) was most harmful for wheat followed by drought at booting stage and grain filling–tillering stages, respectively. The salt-resistant wheat genotype SARC-1 performed better than the saltsensitive genotype 7-Cerros in different stress treatments. A decrease in the water and turgor potentials, photosynthetic and transpiration rates, stomatal conductance, leaf K+, and increased leaf Na+ were the apparent causes of growth and yield reduction of bread wheat due to salinity, drought, and salinity 9 drought.
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