Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2014 | 59 | 3 |
Tytuł artykułu

Forage patch use by grazing herbivores in a South African grazing ecosystem

Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
Understanding how different herbivores make forage patch use choices explains how they maintain an adequate nutritional status, which is important for effective conservation management of grazing ecosystems. Using telemetry data, we investigated nonruminant zebra (Equus burchelli) and ruminant red hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus subspecies camaa), use of burnt patches in a landscape mosaic of nutrient-poor, old grassland interspersed with young, recently burnt, nutrient-rich grass patches. The Mkambati Nature Reserve landscape on the east coast of South Africa provided large grazers with a challenge in finding and using appropriate patches in which to forage to meet their nutritional requirements. In Mkambati, grassland fires, mostly ignited by poachers, induce regrowth of young nutrient-rich grass, which subsequently attract grazers. We tested if the study animals foraged more in burnt patches than in the unburned grassland and whether burnt patch use was related to the distance to the previously visited burnt patch, burnt patch size, burnt patch age, and distance to areas with high poaching risk using MANOVA. In general, zebra moved faster than red hartebeest, and both species moved faster in unburnt grassland than in burnt patches. Red hartebeest and zebra patch selection were influenced by interpatch distance, patch age, patch size, and poaching risk. A limited set of intrinsic traits, i.e., body mass, digestion strategy, and muzzle width, yielded different patch use rules for the two species. Large ungulates patch use behaviour varied among species and across conditions and was influenced by anthropogenic impacts such as poaching and changed fire regimes. This could potentially affect biodiversity negatively and needs to be factored into management of conservation areas.
Opis fizyczny
  • School of Life Sciences, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa
  • Department of Biodiversity Conservation, Eastern Cape Parks and Tourism Agency, PO Box 11235, Southernwood, East London 5213, South Africa
  • Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
  • School of Life Sciences, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa
  • Resource Ecology Group, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 3a, 6705PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
  • School of Life Sciences, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa
  • Allred BW, Fuhlendorf SD, Engle DM, Elmore RD (2011) Ungulate preference for burned patches reveals strength of fire–grazing interaction. Ecol Evol 1:132–144. doi:10.​1002/​ece3.​12 Central
  • Archibald S, Bond WJ (2004) Grazer movements: spatial and temporal responses to burning in a tall-grass African savanna. Int J Wildland Fire 13:377–385
  • Arsenault R, Owen-Smith N (2002) Facilitation versus competition in grazing herbivore assemblages. Oikos 97:313–318
  • Bailey DW, Provenza FD (2008) Mechanisms determining large herbivore distribution. In: Prins HHT, Van Langevelde F (eds) Resource ecology: spatial and temporal dynamics of foraging. Springer, New York
  • Bailey DW, Gross JE, Laca EA, Rittenhouse LR, Coughenour MB, Swift DM, Sims PL (1996) Mechanisms that result in large herbivore grazing distribution patterns. J Range Manag 49:386–400
  • Bell RHV (1971) A grazing ecosystem in the Serengeti. Sci Am 225:86–93
  • Blom A, Van Zalinge R, Mbea E, Heitkönig IMA, Prins HHT (2004) Human impact on wildlife populations within a protected Central African forest. Afr J Ecol 42:23–31. doi:10.​1111/​j.​0141-6707.​2004.​00441.​x
  • Brodie JF, Helmy OE, Brockelman WY, Maron JL (2009) Bushmeat poaching reduces the seed dispersal and population growth rate of a mammal-dispersed tree. Ecol Appl 19:854–863. doi:10.​1890/​08-0955.​1
  • Carbutt C, Goodman PS (2013) How objective are protected area management effectiveness assessments? Koedoe 55:1–8
  • Courant S, Fortin D (2012) Time allocation of bison in meadow patches driven by potential energy gains and group size dynamics. Oikos 121:1163–1173. doi:10.​1111/​j.​1600-0706.​2011.​19994.​x
  • Craigie ID, Baillie JEM, Balmford A, Carbone C, Collen B, Green RE, Hutton JM (2010) Large mammal population declines in Africa’s protected areas. Biol Conserv 143:2221–2228. doi:10.​1016/​j.​biocon.​2010.​06.​007
  • Creel S, Winnie J Jr, Maxwell B, Hamlin K, Creel M (2005) Elk alter habitat selection as an antipredator response to wolves. Ecology 86:3387–3397
  • Creel S, Winnie J, Jr. A, Christianson D, Lilley S (2008) Time and space in general models of antipredator response: tests with wolves and elk. Anim Behav 76:1139–1146
  • Cromsigt JPGM, Prins HHT, Olff H (2009) Habitat heterogeneity as a driver of ungulate diversity and distribution patterns: interaction of body mass and digestive strategy. Divers Distrib 15:513–522. doi:10.​1111/​j.​1472-4642.​2008.​00554.​x
  • de Knegt HJ, Hengeveld GM, van Langevelde F, de Boer WF, Kirkman KP (2007) Patch density determines movement patterns and foraging efficiency of large herbivores. Behav Ecol 18:1065–1072. doi:10.​1093/​beheco/​arm080
  • de Knegt HJ, Groen TA, van de Vijver CADM, Prins HHT, van Langevelde F (2008) Herbivores as architects of Savannas: inducing and modifying spatial vegetation patterning. Oikos 117:543–554
  • de Villiers D, Costello J (2006) Mkambati and the wild coast. Div deVilliers, John Costello & Wilderness Safaris, Rivonia
  • Distel RA, Laca EA, Griggs TC, Demment MW (1995) Patch selection by cattle: maximization of intake rate in horizontally heterogeneous pastures. Appl Anim Behav Sci 45:11–21. doi:10.​1016/​0168-1591(95)00593-h
  • Dray S, Royer-Carenzi M, Calenge C (2010) The exploratory analysis of autocorrelation in animal-movement studies. Ecol Res 25:673–681
  • Drescher M, HeitkÖnig IMA, Van Den Brink PJ, Prins HHT (2006a) Effects of sward structure on herbivore foraging behaviour in a South African savanna: an investigation of the forage maturation hypothesis. Aust Ecol 31:76–87
  • Drescher M, Heitkönig IMA, Raats JG, Prins HHT (2006b) The role of grass stems as structural foraging deterrents and their effects on the foraging behaviour of cattle. Appl Anim Behav Sci 101:10–26. doi:10.​1016/​j.​applanim.​2006.​01.​011
  • Edouard N, Duncan P, Dumont B, Baumont R, Fleurance G (2010) Foraging in a heterogeneous environment: an experimental study of the trade-off between intake rate and diet quality. Appl Anim Behav Sci 126:27–36. doi:10.​1016/​j.​applanim.​2010.​05.​008
  • Eisenberg C, Seager ST, Hibbs DE (2013) Wolf, elk, and aspen food web relationships: context and complexity. For Ecol Manag 299:70–80. doi:10.​1016/​j.​foreco.​2013.​01.​014
  • Fischer F, Eduard LK (2007) Changing social organization in an ungulate population subject to poaching and predation —the kob antelope (Kobus kob kob) in the Comoé National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. Afr J Ecol 45:285–292. doi:10.​1111/​j.​1365-2028.​2006.​00706.​x
  • Fischhoff IR, Sundaresan SR, Cordingley JDI (2007) Habitat use and movements of plains zebra (Equus burchelli) in response to predation danger from lions. Behav Ecol 18:725–729
  • Fortin D (2003) Searching behavior and use of sampling information by free-ranging bison (Bos bison). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 54:194–203
  • Fortin D, Beyer HL, Boyce MS, Smith DW, Duchesne T, Mao JS (2005) Wolves influence elk movements: behavior shapes a trophic cascade in Yellowstone National Park. Ecology 86:1320–1330
  • Gibbs JP, Snell HL, Causton CE (1999) Effective monitoring for adaptive wildlife management: lessons from the Galapagos Islands. J Wildl Manag 63:1055–1065
  • Gordon IJ, Illius AW (1988) Incisor arcade structure and diet selection in ruminants. Funct Ecol 2:15–22
  • Grant RCC, Peel MJS, Bezuidenhout H (2011) Evaluating herbivore management outcomes and associated vegetation impacts. Koedoe 53:1–15
  • Green RA, Bear GD (1990) Seasonal cycles and daily activity patterns of Rocky Mountain elk. J Wildl Manag 54:272–279
  • Gross JE, Zank C, Hobbs NT, Spalinger DE (1995) Movement rules for herbivores in spatially heterogeneous environments: responses to small scale pattern. Landsc Ecol 10:209–217. doi:10.​1007/​bf00129255
  • Gude JA, Garrott RA, Borkowski JJ, King F (2006) Prey risk allocation in a grazing ecosystem. Ecol Appl 16:285–298
  • Hayward MW (2009) Bushmeat hunting in Dwesa and Cwebe Nature Reserves, Eastern Cape, South Africa South African. J Wildl Res 39:70–84. doi:10.​3957/​056.​039.​0108
  • Illius AW, Gordon IJ (1992) Modeling the nutritional ecology of ungulate herbivores: evolution of body size and competitive interactions. Oecologia 89:426–434
  • Kie JG (1999) Optimal foraging and risk of predation: effects on behavior and social structure in ungulates. J Mammal 80:1114–1129
  • Kittle AM, Fryxell JM, Desy GE, Hamr J (2008) The scale-dependent impact of wolf predation risk on resource selection by three sympatric ungulates. Oecologia 157:163–175
  • Kohi EM et al (2011) African elephants Loxodonta africana amplify browse heterogeneity in African Savanna. Biotropica 43:711–721. doi:10.​1111/​j.​1744-7429.​2010.​00724.​x
  • Manor R, Saltz D (2003) Impact of human nuisance disturbance on vigilance and group size of a social ungulate. Ecol Appl 13:1830–1834
  • McNaughton SJ (1976) Serengeti migratory wildebeest: facilitation of energy flow by grazing. Science 191:3
  • Morgantini LE, Hudson RJ (1985) Changes in diets of Wapiti during a hunting season. J Range Manag 38:77–79
  • Mucina L, Scott-Shaw CR, Rutherford MC, Camp KGT, Matthews WS, Powrie LW, Hoare DB (2006) Indian ocean coastal belt. In: Mucina L, Rutherford MC (eds) The vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Strelitzia, vol 19. South African Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria
  • Okello MM, Wishitemi REL, Muhoro F (2002) Forage intake rates and foraging efficiency of free-ranging zebra and impala. S Afr J Wildl Res 32:93–100
  • Olff H, Ritchie ME, Prins HHT (2002) Global environmental controls of diversity in large herbivores. Nature 415:901–904
  • Owen-Smith N (2005) Adaptive herbivore ecology: from resources to populations in variable environments. Wits University Press, Johannesburg
  • Owen-Smith N, Goodall V (2014) Coping with savanna seasonality: comparative daily activity patterns of African ungulates as revealed by GPS telemetry. J Zool. doi:10.​1111/​jzo.​12132
  • Owen-Smith N, Fryxell JM, Merrill EH (2010) Foraging theory upscaled: the behavioural ecology of herbivore movement. Philos Trans R Soc 365:2267–2278
  • Parrini F, Owen-Smith N (2010) The importance of post-fire regrowth for sable antelope in a Southern African savanna. Afr J Ecol 48:526–534. doi:10.​1111/​j.​1365-2028.​2009.​01143.​x
  • Peinke D, Peinke S, Venter JA (2010) Game census report 2010. Unpublished report, Eastern Cape Parks and Tourism Agency, East London
  • Prins HHT (1996) Behavior and ecology of the African Buffalo: social inequality and decision making. Chapman & Hall, London
  • Prins HHT, Olff H (1998) Species richness of African grazer assemblages: towards a functional explanation. In: Newbery DM, Prins HHT, Brown ND (eds) British Ecological Society Symposium. Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp 449–490
  • Prins HHT, Van Langevelde F (2008) Resource ecology. Springer, New York
  • Proffitt KM, Grigg JL, Hamlin KL, Garrott RA (2009) Contrasting effects of wolves and human hunters on elk behavioral responses to predation risk. J Wildl Manag 73:345–356
  • R-Development-Core-Team (2011) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna
  • Ripple WJ, Beschta RL (2007) Restoring Yellowstone’s aspen with wolves. Biol Conserv 138:514–519. doi:10.​1016/​j.​biocon.​2007.​05.​006
  • Ruggiero RG (1992) Seasonal forage utilization by elephants in central Africa. Afr J Ecol 30:137–148. doi:10.​1111/​j.​1365-2028.​1992.​tb00487.​x
  • Ryan SJ, Jordaan W (2005) Acticity patterns of African buffalo Syncerus caffer in the Lower Sabie Region, Kruger National Park, South Africa. Koedoe 48:8
  • Schuette JR, Leslie DM, Lochmiller RLJ, Jenks JA (1998) Diets of hartebeest and roan antelope in Burkina Faso: support of the long-faced hypothesis. J Mammal 79:426–436
  • Senft RL, Coughenour MB, Bailey DW, Rittenhouse LR, Sala OE, Swift DM (1987) Large herbivore foraging and ecological hierarchies. Bioscience 37:789–799. doi:10.​2307/​1310545
  • Sensenig RL, Demment MW, Laca EA (2010) Allometric scaling predicts preferences for burned patches in a guild of East African grazers. Ecology 91:2898–2907
  • Shackleton CM (1989) An ecological survey of a selected area of Pondoland Sourveld with emphasis on its response to the management practices of burning and grazing. University of Transkei
  • Shackleton CM (1990) Seasonal changes in biomass concentration in three coastal grassland communities in Transkei. J Grassl Soc S Afr 7:265–269
  • Shackleton CM, Mentis MT (1992) Seasonal changes in nutrient content under three defoliation treatments in two coastal grassland communities of Transkei. Tydskrif van die Weidingsvereniging van Suid Afrika 9:30–37
  • Shackleton CM, Granger JE, Mcenzie B, Mentis MT (1991) Multivariate analysis of coastal grasslands at Mkambati Game Reserve, north-eastern Pondoland. Transkei Bothalia 21:91–107
  • Shannon G, Page BR, Mackey RL, Duffy KJ, Slotow R (2008) Activity budgets and sexual segregation in African elephants (Loxodonta africana). J Mammal 89:467–476
  • Shipley LA, Spalinger DE, Gross JE, Thompson Hobbs N, Wunder BA (1996) The dynamics and scaling of foraging velocity and encounter rate in mammalian herbivores. Funct Ecol 10:234–244
  • Sibbald AM, Hooper RJ (2003) Trade-offs between social behaviour and foraging by sheep in heterogeneous pastures. Behav Process 61:1–12
  • Thaker M, Vanak AT, Owen CR, Ogden MB, Niemann SM, Slotow R (2010) Minimizing predation risk in a landscape of multiple predators: effects on the spatial distribution of African ungulates. Ecology 92:398–407. doi:10.​1890/​10-0126.​1
  • Valeix M, Fritz H, Loveridge A, Davidson Z, Hunt J, Murindagomo F, Macdonald D (2009a) Does the risk of encountering lions influence African herbivore behaviour at waterholes? Behav Ecol Sociobiol 63:1483–1494. doi:10.​1007/​s00265-009-0760-3
  • Valeix M, Loveridge AJ, Chamaillé-Jammes S, Davidson Z, Murindagomo F, Fritz H, Macdonald DW (2009b) Behavioral adjustments of African herbivores to predation risk by lions: spatiotemporal variations influence habitat use. Ecology 90:23–30. doi:10.​1890/​08-0606.​1
  • van Beest FM, Mysterud A, Loe LE, Milner JM (2010) Forage quantity, quality and depletion as scale-dependent mechanisms driving habitat selection of a large browsing herbivore. J Anim Ecol 79:910–922. doi:10.​1111/​j.​1365-2656.​2010.​01701.​x
  • van Langevelde F, Drescher M, Heitkönig IMA, Prins HHT (2008) Instantaneous intake rate of herbivores as function of forage quality and mass: effects on facilitative and competitive interactions. Ecol Model 213:273–284. doi:10.​1016/​j.​ecolmodel.​2007.​12.​009
  • van Soest PJ (1982) Nutritional ecology of the ruminant. OB Booksa, Corvallis
  • Venter JA, Prins HHT, Balfour DA, Slotow R (2014) Reconstructing grazer assemblages for protected area restoration. PLoS ONE 9:e90900. doi:10.​1371/​journal.​pone.​0090900 Central
  • Wallace RB (2008) The influence of feeding patch size and relative fruit density on the foraging behavior of the Black spider monkey ateles chamek. Biotropica 40:501–506. doi:10.​1111/​j.​1744-7429.​2007.​00392.​x
  • Waltert M, Meyer B, Kiffner C (2009) Habitat availability, hunting or poaching: what affects distribution and density of large mammals in western Tanzanian woodlands? Afr J Ecol 47:737–746. doi:10.​1111/​j.​1365-2028.​2009.​01080.​x
  • Winnie JA Jr, Creel S (2007) Sex-specific behavioural responses of elk to spatial and temporal variation in the threat of wolf predation. Anim Behav 73:215–225
  • Wright SJ, Duber HC (2001) Poachers and forest fragmentation alter seed dispersal, seed survival, and seedling recruitment in the palm Attalea butyraceae, with implications for tropical tree diversity. Biotropica 33:583–595. doi:10.​1111/​j.​1744-7429.​2001.​tb00217.​x
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.