PUBLIC AID FOR POLISH ENTERPRISES AFTER THE EUROPEAN UNION ACCESSION
Based on field research relating to adjustment of the Polish enterprises to the integrated European Union market the paper is dedicated to public aid impact and efficiency on the level of enterprises in the period 2004-2006. Analysis related to purposes of applying for aid, impact of public aid, assessment of the procedure and criteria of public aid allocation, reasons of not applying for public aid, instruments of public aid, effectiveness of impact exerted by public aid instruments and assessment of effectiveness of public aid for companies in the period of 2003-2006. Conducted analyses show directions in the allocation of structural funds point to quality-based competitive factors. Majority of observed companies have recorded public aid as improving competitiveness and innovations. They have noted increase in investments, R&D expenditures, and expenses relating to enhancement of employee qualifications. Subsidies and allowances were the dominant form of public aid that enterprises used in the years 2003-2006. At present, interests are growing in other forms of public aid, in particular loan guarantees and sureties and also capital and investment subsidies. In the group of companies that generate more income tax than aid received in the period of 2004-2005 important role are playing small and medium firms (75%) which increased income (64%), fixed assets (100%), employment level (77%), investment into R&D (29%). It shows that there is possibility to measure micro efficiency of public aid granted to enterprises and it could be the base for development of institutional solutions for better public aid allocation.
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