TRANSJORDAN BETWEEN THE PAN-ARAB MOVEMENT AND THE BRITISH EMPIRE (1920-1948)
The author focuses on the origin of the Transjordanian state (today: the Kingdom of Jordan). The backdrop of the presented process is a general outline of Levantine history from the fall of the Ottoman Empire to first years after the second world war (approximately to the beginning of 1948). The establishment of the state was the outcome of two contrary impacts, one of them being British imperialism, and the other - the activity of Arabian political forces. The most essential for the creation of Transjordan proved to have been the steps made by the Hashimite dynasty, and in particular Emir Abdullah. The article depicts the history of the future Jordanian territory during the first world war, and in a more detailed manner - the establishment of Transjordan by the British and Emir Abdullah as well as its development in the 1920s and 1930s. The author chose the year 1920 due to the fact that it could be recognised as the beginning of the Emirate. The closing date is more exact since the conventions signed with Great Britain in 1946 and 1948 signified a formal recognition of Transjordan's independence. . Key place in the article is granted to the complicated policy of the Transjordanian authorities (primarily Abdullah personally). The Emir regarded himself as a vassal of the British Empire and wished to fulfil his obligations towards Great Britain. Simultaneously, he was compelled to take into consideration the growing pan-Arab mood of the local societies. True, Abdullah managed to reinforce the distinct rank of Transjordan and to satisfy the British authorities, but a wall of animosity had risen between him and the pan-Arab movement.
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