THE INDICATORS OF THE ACTUALIZATION OF THE UTTERANCE
The present article concerns the second of two constituents of an utterance, which is the predication. We also have a superficial look at the linguistic means of setting of actualization.People used to consider the predication as the attribution of a certain content to the fixed (indicated and space localized) elements of the reality by means of the expressions called predicative, i.e. the lexical items, which are to used as predicates in the structure of the sentence. In fact, the predication doesn't consist only in the choice of some lexical items, which concern certain states of affairs. The predicative expressions should be temporal actualized (the recipient of the utterance is able to locate the predication on the time axis) and modal actualized (the recipient knows, whether contents of an utterance are presented as real, certain, more or less probable, desirable or undesirable). The means that are used to predicate differ from the indicators of the topic (including reference) in various ways. Some of them (tense, mode) are grammatical (inflectional) in Polish, some are the lexical items, some are prosodic features, whereas the exponents of the topic are lexical or suprasegmental. The grammatical indexes, as we know, are regular and obligatory. The possibility of choosing in this case is rather limited: speakers can choose from different inflectional forms (e.g. tense), but are obliged to choose of them (because of grammaticality). The lexical exponents are not so restricted as grammatical: speakers can use them in an utterance, but are not obliged to do it, besides, choosing one of them does not exclude (shouldn't exclude) choosing the others.
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