POLITICAL AND MILITARY ACTIVITY OF POLISH PROACTIVE CIRCLES IN RUSSIA IN THE PERIOD BETWEEN THE REVOLUTIONS (MARCH - NOVEMBER 1917) (Dzialalnosc polityczno-wojskowa polskich kregow proaktywistycznych w Rosji w okresie miedzyrewolucyjnym (marzec-listo
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The emergence and functioning on the territory of Russia in 1917 of the Polish political circle directed at the Central States is to be considered as a kind of a marvel. Liberal-democratic groups created the core of the proactive camp in Russia. Since October 1917 they operated behind the common fac¸ade of the Supreme Democratic Committee (Naczelny Komitet Demokratyczny). The proactive Pilsudski left functioned in the background. It consisted of political activists belonging to such emigrational structures as the Polish Socialist Party - Revolutionary Faction (Polska Partia Socjalistyczna Frakcji Rewolucyjnej) and the Polish People's Union (Polski Zwiazek Ludowy). The third proactive group, of a rather niche nature - both in terms of the number of members and the influence on the Polish society in Russia - consisted of conservative fractions active from October 1917 as the National Union Block (Blok Jednosci Narodowej). Liberal democrats were the leading force in this internally diverse political circle. Taking advantage of the internal chaos in Russia in the period between the revolutions (March-November 1917), the above mentioned groups reached agree-ment with the Provisional Council of State (Tymczasowa Rada Stanu) during the I Stockholm Conference organized in May 1917. The most spectacular effect of this cooperation was the postponement and then liquidation of chances for the creation of Polish Eastern formations in Russia in the former shape. This idea was popular among national democrats and their supporters of the Supreme Polish Military Committee (Naczelny Polski Komitet Wojskowy). The character of political and military activity of the proactive circles in Russia - of both party members and soldiers gathered around the Main Committee of Union of Polish Military Men - the Left (Komitet Glówny Zwiazku Wojskowych Polaków - Lewicy) - underwent major transformations after the Bolshevik coup d'´ etat. It was then that the first symptoms of both decomposition of the circle itself and reorientation of policy co-created by these groups occurred. It happened during the short period between the Bolshevik coup d'´etat and the signing of the Brest-Litovsk Peace by commissars.
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