GARDEN COMPLEX OF THE HERRENCHIEMSEE PALACE. PRESENTATIONS OF VERSAILLES GARDENS IN THE ARTISTIC PATRONAGE OF KING LUDWIG II OF BAVARIA (Polish title - below)
(Title in Polish - 'Zalozenie ogrodowe palacu Herrenchiemsee. Motyw ogrodów wersalskich w mecenacie artystycznym Ludwika II Bawarskiego'). In the last accomplished edifice built on the initiative of King Ludwig II of Bavaria - the Herrenchiemsee Palace, the gardens were a very special and important part. Commonly called the Bavarian Versailles, the 'Temple of Fame' for King Louis XIV of France and the absolute monarchy, is mostly based and modelled on its archetype. Unlike the palace itself, there were only three projects for the gardens, designed by the chief gardener of the court, Carl von Effner. In 1882, the creation of the surroundings began. The financial problems and sudden death of the King in 1886 hindered the plans. A decision was made to finish only the most essential works. The accomplished and most important part of the gardens is on the western side of the palace. It features water parterre, the Cabinet of the Dawn and Diana Cabinet, Parterre of Latona, Tapis Vert, the Pool of Apollo, and the canal connected with the lake. This part is almost entirely modelled on the Versailles garden complex of King Louis XIV and its decorations created by Andre Le Notre and Charles Le Brun. Except for the part of the gardens that marks the western landscape axis nothing else was constructed. On the eastern side of the palace it was planned to situate the bosquets and garden parterres .The dense forestation of the completed part of the garden shut it from the surroundings. The other, not accomplished parts of the garden, were supposed to include alleys, bosquets, parterres, fountains and sculptures, modelled mainly on the Versailles. The symbolism of all the other elements of the park, both the accomplished and only the planned ones, is partly related to the solar-cosmological themes of the Versailles complex which is a kind of microcosm, where King Louis XIV depicted as god Apollo was the only ruler. This symbolism is reflected in the location of the palace according to the sides of the world, the central axis as a symbol of the way the Sun goes. The Bavarian monarch rejected following patterns of the garden complex of the near-Paris residence in its 19th-century condition. The genius of Le Notre revealed in Versailles reveals in the accomplished part of Herrenchiemsee gardens only partially. However, the parts that were never made had a great potential. The Versailles gardens were for King Ludwig II not only a place of leisure and symbol of the residence of the Sun King, but an important place for numerous court ceremonies of those times. Numerous sculptures decorating the interiors of the Herrenchiemsee Palace, as well as of his Linderhof Palace (with its gardens), were inspired by and modelled on the Versailles ones.. Particularly important in this context are the features derived from the Versailles gardens and introduced into the interior décor of King Ludwig II's palaces - at Herrenchiemsee and Linderhof; for instance, a porcelain service dedicated to King Louis XIV or numerous elements from theatre performances specially prepared for the Bavarian King. The king's involvement in the planning of the Herrenchiemsee Palace with its garden complex and also in some other similar projects resulted from his profound historic knowledge.
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