Fonologická adaptace anglicismů v kvantitativním pohledu
The phonological adaptation of Anglicisms to Czech: a quantitative approach
The article aims at describing and quantifying the phonological processes involved in the adaptation of Anglicisms to Czech. The object of the analysis is a comprehensive database of phonological forms obtained from dictionaries. The prevailing principle is phonological approximation, i.e. the perceptually motivated, systemic substitution of English phonemes by Czech phonemes, which includes, apart from one-to-one phonemic projections, phonological mergers, context-sensitive substitutions, and variant substitutions. The adaptation is based on the British phonological system, the influence of American English being only marginal. The second fundamental principle in order of importance is spelling pronunciation. The distribution of these principles and their combinations is relatively stable in the centre and at the periphery of the lexical subsystem of Anglicisms. In approximately one-fifth of the sample, the two primary principles are complemented by one or more secondary principles (analogy with English, Czech or a third language, language universals, anomalies).