RECONSTRUCTION OF MODERNISM, MODERNISM OF RECONSTRUCTION. INTERBAU, URBAN DEVELOPMENT, AND THE ARCHITECTURE OF BERLIN IN THE 1950s
When World War II was over, Berlin became a special place of competition between different ideas of urban development and architecture. Over the first few years following 1945, the developers, investors, and administrators in both parts of the divided city had both avant-garde and conservative ideas of reconstruction. The basic frame of reference included the 'Charter of Athens' and the 'Collective Plan' developed during the war by Hans Scharoun, which anticipated a less condensed urban structure than that developed in the 19th century, highlighting the term 'urban landscape'. Alternative ideas (the so-called Zehlendorfer Plan) postulated that the pre-war throughfaves be maintained, which meant restoration of the old urban system. A breakthrough in the architectural culture came when the GDR chose in April 1950 the socialist realism and the 'Sixteen Points of Urban Planning', alternative to the 'Charter of Athens'. The government of the FRG, supported by the USA which sponsored visits of the emigre avant-garde designers, such as Walter Gropius, chose for its architecture the model of modernism and modern principles of urban planning. That decision stressed references to the socialist traditions of the democratic Weimar Republic and connections with international modernism. An example of the West German activity in the field of urban development was an international competition 'Hauptstadt Berlin' and the 'INTERBAU' exhibition in 1957. The paper reconstructs the course of events over the first few years after the war and the process of adopting the international standards of urban planning and architecture in the FRG. The author focused his attention on the development of residential areas by Scharoun, and the implementation of his ideas in the buildings and spatial composition of the Berlin 'INTERBAU' exhibition.
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