TEMPERANCE CONGRESSES IN GALICIA IN 1904-1912 (Kongresy przeciwalkoholowe w Galicji w latach 1904-1912)
This article presents the history of Galician temperance congresses which were held in Cracow and Lwów in 1904, 1905 and 1912 in the shadow of international congresses organized between 1885 and 1913. Actively participating in these congresses were the leading Galician teetotalers from the Eleuteria-Liberation Society, Zofia Daszynska-Golinska, Benedykt Dybowski, and Gedeon Giedroyc. They were joined by representatives of temperance associations from all parts of Poland and émigré Poles from Prussia, Russia, Slovenia and France. Apart from teetotalers, the congresses were attended by activists of various Galician social and educational societies (the Hygienic Society, the Polish Gymnastic Society 'Sokoły', the Association of Polish University Lecturers, Polish Pedagogical Society, Primary School Association, Peasant Co-operatives, etc.), the local intelligentsia, and representatives of the intellectual and political elites headed by the Rector of the Jan Kazimierz University Ludwik Finkiel and the Mayor of Lwów Józef Neumann. The participants shared their experiences in fighting alcoholism and working with addicts. They also discussed the founding of a special clinic for people addicted to 'intoxicating beverages' and gave their support to the motion calling for some restrictions in the sale of alcohol on Sundays and official holidays. Finally, they appealed for participation in international temperance congresses.
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