TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN AMERICAN HEALTHCARE AGENCIES AND HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS (Przywództwo transformacyjne i zarzadzanie jakoscia w amerykanskich agencjach ochrony zdrowia i instytucjach opieki medycznej)
Healthcare entities and healthcare providers are organizations, that through resources, structures, goal setting and controlling perform their specific tasks. They are influenced by various conditions: economical, technological, social, cultural, legal and many others. In the 1950s the United States produced 70% of consumer goods in the world and were known for the principles of scientific management. In the 1970s due to too high costs and waste the best American companies started to drive down waste cost and change management methods towards Total Quality Management and took a risk of empowering front-line employees. American administrative structures were perceived as a problem for their too extended bureaucracy and could no longer expect customer satisfaction. The transition to the new quality if governance based on TQM philosophy of W.E. Deming brought great effects. The front liners and associates started management and controlling of organizational processes. The quality concepts for healthcare industry were worked out in standards of Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations and Joint Commission International Accreditation. Excellence in health care is also measured and prized by the M. Baldrige National Quality Award. The following essay describes how American experts J.E. Pankowski and J.M.Koehler introduced their empowerment system in the American health care and social security entities. Their findings and techniques, establishing organizational strategies, vision and organizational values, concept of training governmental leaders and associates, as well as facilitating teams might be extremely interesting, valuable and inspiring for the Polish health institutions on their way to organizational improvement and clinical excellence.
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