VALUATION IN LANGUAGE AND TEXT
The article deals with the problem of the linguistic and textual manifestations of valuation. A claim is made that it is always realized in utterances, i.e. texts. The subjects of textual valuations are the authors of the texts, whereas the subjects of conventionalized coded valuations are communities of different sizes. The object of valuation is the whole reality and possible worlds arising in people's consciousness. People tend to valuate themselves, their own abilities, traits and actions. The basis for valuating judgments are sentences, treated as the principles of values, which include the general quantifier (of the type 'X is something valuable/bad'). In the communicative act, the speaker/hearer can combine norms from different systems of values, borrow principles from individual authorities or create one's own. In texts, one finds the presence of: a) value judgments coming from the speaking subject (the author of the text), in poetry - of the lyrical 'I', in narrative prose – of the narrator; b) judgments from the protagonists and other literary frgures, c) judgments expressed in direct or indirect speech. Textual valuation appears in various speech acts and modalities. Valuation often takes place in hidden presuppositions. It can be achieved through various units of the linguistic code: words: 'dobry' (good), 'zly' (bad), 'ladny' (nice), 'brzydki' (ugly), 'ojczyzna' (homeland); phraseological units: 'cos jest do kitu' (sth is worth nothing), 'cos jest wysokiej klasy' (sth is of high class); word-formational constructions: 'romansidlo' (mawkish love story), 'artykulisko' (a huge article); inflectional forms 'ministry' (ministers), 'profesory' (professors); syntactic constructions: 'dzieki komus' (thanks to sb), 'kosztem kogos/czegos' (at the expense of sb/sth) and phonological features (e.g. intonation). Valuation occurs in texts with various functions; it constitutes an important aspect of group identity.
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