ON THE PROBLEM OF BLUDGEONS FROM THE PERIOD OF THE AVAR KHAGANATE (K problematike bijakov z obdobia avarskeho kaganatu)
The paper deals with occurrence of pear-, ball- or egg-shaped artefacts made of the antler or bone. In Russian scientific literature the term 'kisten' is used for its description. It is a part of striking weapon, in which movable joining of head and handle is used to increase the striking effect. Strokes are heavier and defence is more difficult than from stave and mace. Comparing with sword, mace or war hammer, impact force is not transmitted to the handle. The shield protection against strokes is problematic, too. Another advantage is that its head on the chain can wrap around the enemy's weapon. Ensuing swift movement backwards pulls the weapon out of his hands. In the Slovak scientific literature the term 'bijak' is used for this weapon, which occurs in horseman's graves from the Period of the Avar Khaganate. That's why its single-handed variant is hypothesized to exist. Majority of bludgeons can be dated to the late phase of the Period of the Avar Khaganate. In addition to another phenomena and artefacts that existed at the Khaganate territory in this period, occurrence of bludgeons proves intensive contacts between the Carpathian Basin and the Saltovo-Mayaki culture, where this type of weapon appears rather frequently.
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