INVESTMENT OUTLAYS ON ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION BY FOOD AND TOBACCO INDUSTRIES IN POLAND AND SELECTED EU COUNTRIES
One of the major sources of the natural environment's contamination in Poland is production carried out by the food industry. The process of production of food articles, during which various raw materials, auxiliary materials and technologies are used, leads also to the creation of pollutants. It becomes important, therefore, to define the degree of involvement of the food industry's entities in pro-ecological activities. Hence, the authors have undertaken an attempt at analysing the scope and structure of investment outlays on environmental protection by the food sector in Poland and selected countries of the European Union. In recent years Poland and Sweden have been characterised by diminishing outlays on environmental protection, whereas in the Czech Republic pro-ecological expenditures have risen. However, in per capita terms the largest amounts were allocated to environmental protection by Swedish enterprises – EUR 2.10 yearly, and the smallest amounts were allocated by Polish enterprises - less than EUR 0.50 yearly. The annual index for Czech enterprises was EUR 1.20. In 2000-2002 Poland was characterised by the lowest share of integrated investments (approximately 30%). The structure of investment outlays was the most favourable in Sweden where investments in the prevention of pollution accounted for nearly a half of all environmental investments. An analysis of the directions of investment efforts suggests that outlays on the protection of air and climate had a dominating share in the overall environmental investments only in Sweden. In the remaining countries outlays on waste water disposal and protection of waters had a dominating share in the total environmental investments.
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