PRINCIPLES AND MECHANISMS FOR BUILDING UP PARTNERSHIPS TO SOLVE TASKS OF THE INNOVATION-BASED ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Globalization increases the role of partnerships between the government, local administrations, private and academic sectors, allowing for coordination, regulation and management in the condition of radical change in the role of government and in relations with the environment. Levels and types of partnerships are analyzed, principles and mechanisms for the effective partnership between government and private sector in S&T are discussed, specifics of S&T partnerships are shown. Experiences of building up partnerships in research and innovation are shown by looking at their evolution in the USA, the EU and Asian countries (Taiwan, Japan). In Ukraine, beginning of 90s marked the disruption of previously existing types of partnerships and the need to push technologically advanced enterprises to the external market, which was an ultimately new matter for Ukraine. At the same time, 'intra-level' competition between the actors of the innovation process was boosting: rivalry for finances between research organizations, rivalry between universities for students studying on contract basis, rivalry between businessmen for 'ownerless' resources. However, these rivalries had nothing common with setting up effective links for innovation purposes. Also, economic openness of Ukraine revealed its weakness as an actor at the world technology market. The distinction of the innovation system in Ukraine (and Russia) from technologically advanced countries is in a large share of the government R&D sector, small number of large R&D-intensive companies and weakness of the small innovation business; in failure of the business environment to stimulate various S&T partnerships. In spite of declarations about S&T and innovation stimuli, steps on building up the required basis for partnerships only began in Ukraine, with organization, in 2006, of the scientific park 'Kiyevskaya Politekhnika', on the basis of the National Technical University in Kiev.
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