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2008 | 56 | 1 | 103-146
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A TOP-MEDIEVAL VILLAGE IN SLOVENSKA NOVA VES AND ZELENEC (Vrcholnostredoveka dedina zo Slovenskej Novej Vsi a Zelenca)

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A village settlement was explored at the border present-day districts of Slovenska Nova Ves and Zelenec villages. The settlement consisted of 26 settlement features: 4 underground shelters, 13 ovens and 9 pit-like features. Three of the four shelters served for dwelling, one for activities connected with farming. The dwelling shelters included ovens with clay domes, storage pits and postholes of the roof bearing construction. Independently situated ovens had body divided into a dome-covered hearth and a space in front of the oven. They were divided into three categories depending on their size. The ovens were used for bread baking, cooking, and processing of farming products and for firing of pottery vessels as well. Two of the nine pit-like features were grain storage pit. Other pits were probably used for short-term storing of various products and raw materials. Substantial part of discovered material culture are finds of pottery. In the collection pot-shape vessels were overwhelming; storage pits sporadic; kettle- and bottle-shaped vessels were rare. Another types of artefacts were unique. The pottery and a spur allow only a rough dating of the settlement. Demographic aspects narrow the time interval to the end of 11th to the first half of 12th cent. Number of the settlement features, their spacing and ways of use are proofs of economically independent segment of a rural settlement. Considering the capacity of storage features, 10-14 individuals in average could live at the settlement during its two development phases. Quantity of stored grain shows the plant production represented the substantial part in the farming production total volume. The untypical spacing of the settlement objects complements information on the site as well. They were not situated in an unbroken concentration on one of the Ronava brook banks. They were two independent segments situated on the opposite banks. The three dwellings excavated at Slovenska Nova Ves represent more important part of the medieval village. Remaining settlement objects were scattered about in accordance with their purpose. Two grain storage pits and another three storage pits were situated near the dwellings and ovens were at maximum distance of them. The settlement segment at Zeleneč included five ovens situates on low slopes. Separating of the section at Zelenec with predominating big-sized ovens was presumably caused by more suitable land configuration and way of the ovens operating, which could threaten or restrict standard activities of the inhabitants from the dwelling segment. Considering the find of a brick in one of dwellings, a sacral building can be assumed in the village vicinity.
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Rodzaj publikacji
  • Milan Hanuliak, Archeologicky ustav SAV, Akademicka 2, 949 21 Nitra, Slovak Republic
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