Poland within the European Union, the European Union within the World. A Fundamental Analysis
The European Union was created with the aim of meeting specific material and spiritual needs. The fundaments of the European Union are unitarism and pluralism. Unitarism, or bonds (unio), is that which unites society. The bond is history, customs, common purpose and the like. What bonds the European Union is primarily European culture, in other words that what links the cultures of individual nations, created for example by Goethe, St. Thomas or Voltaire. The internal factors of European unity are thus common needs, such as, for example, the fight with terrorism, which cannot be fulfilled at the national level. The external factors imposing political unity are globalisation and competition with the United States. In turn, pluralism, although it differentiates a given community, does not destroy it, because the differences become 'conditio sine qua non' of the community. Society is the unity of a defined multiplicity. Each community is the sum of social multiplicity and unity. This means that the preservation of a European identity does not demand the elimination of the differences between nations. However, the Union is not free from the threats which might lead to its disintegration, such as scepticism and agnosticism or secular fundamentalism. A certain type of messianism also underlies the Union which is based on the false assumption that nations are merely a source of evil, for example, that linked with war, thus the resolution of the problems resulting from the multiplicity of nations has to be federation. Following the demonstration of the doubtful character of these premises, we come to the conclusion that Polish tradition, invoking the co-existence of unity and multiplicity, of unitarist and pluralist element, might become a pattern for the further transformation of the European Union.
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