INDUSTRIAL CLUSTERS AS A FACTOR BEHIND THE INNOVATIVENESS AND COMPETITIVENESS OF REGIONS (Kooperacja w ramach klastrów jako czynnik zwiekszenia innowacyjnosci i konkurencyjnosci regionów)
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The article examines the conditions underlying the establishment and development of industrial clusters and analyzes the impact of clusters on the competitiveness of regional economies, especially in the context of business innovation. Industrial clusters are one of the most researched methods for stimulating horizontal cooperation in the economy, according to the author. They play an important role in generating and accelerating innovation processes and can act as 'growth poles' for both regional and national economies. Industrial clusters fit into the latest generation of innovation process and policy models, which underline the role of cooperation among enterprises and the significance of ties between companies and research centers. Cluster structures contribute to the diffusion of knowledge and capital in the modern economy. Businesses operating as part of clusters can pursue innovative projects on the basis of both their own resources and expertise and skills provided by other market players, institutions, industries and scientific disciplines. Cooperation as part of clusters is beneficial for individual companies (micro level), regional economies (meso level), and the country as a whole (macroeconomic level). He pays special attention to the regional aspects of clustering, such as proximity, cultural community, tacit knowledge, trust, and social capital. The article highlights the guidelines of Polish cluster policy, which he says is an important component of innovation and regional and industrial policies. Cluster initiatives are usually launched at the regional level, the author notes. In the article, he focuses on measures carried out in various provinces in Poland, mainly by analyzing regional operational programs for 2007-2013. There are different models of supporting clusters in different regions in Poland but all these models make it possible to develop cluster structures with strong development potential.
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