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2008 | 39 | 4 | 217-225
Tytuł artykułu

The Under— and Overestimation Effects in Comparative Judgments — Assimilation and Contrast Mechanisms

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
The aim of the studies presented in this paper was to propose a new explanation of under- and overestimation effects in comparative judgments. The fundamental assumption of this new interpretation is that in comparative judgments ('the object X in comparison with the object Y' type) the target is contrasted with the comparison standard when the compared objects seem generally dissimilar and assimilated to the standard when the objects seem generally similar. In a series of three studies students were asked to compare the chances of certain events occurring to two objects (self vs. classmate vs. the average person). The direction of comparison was manipulated. Generally, when the more salient object was compared to the less salient object, irrespective of the valence of the events, the overestimation effects occurred only in case of frequent events and the underestimation effects only in case of rare events. The reversal of direction of comparisons yielded the clear reduction of comparative bias.
Słowa kluczowe
Rocznik
Tom
39
Numer
4
Strony
217-225
Opis fizyczny
source-id: PPB_39_4\U053X64437G49W0H.xml
Rodzaj publikacji
ARTICLE
Twórcy
  • Agnieszka de Zavala, Instytut Psychologii PAN, ul. Chodakowska 19/31, 03-815 Warszawa, Poland
Bibliografia
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  • Chambers, J. R., Windschitl, P. D., & Suls, J. (2003). Egocentrism, event frequency, and comparative optimism: When what happens frequently is "more likely to happen to me".Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 1343-1356.
  • Codol, J. P., Jarymowicz, M., Kaminska-Feldman, M., & Szuster-Zbrojewicz, A. (1989). Asymmetry in the estimation of interpersonal distance and identity affirmation.European Journal of Social Psychology, 19, 11-22.
  • Cypryańska, M., & Krejtz, I. (2005). Nierealistyczny optymizm - optymizm przewidywań czy zniekształcenia poznawcze przypadkiem optymistyczne? (Unrealistic optimism - the optimism of predictions or the cognitive biases that are optimistic by a chance?).Studia Psychologiczne, 43, 37-48. (in Polish)
  • Dunning, D., & Hayes, A. F. (1996). Evidence for egocentric comparison in social judgment.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 213-229.
  • Fox, C. R., & Levav, J. (2000). Familiarity bias and belief reversal in relative likelihood judgment.Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 82, 268-292.
  • Hamilton, D. L., & Sherman, S. J. (1996). Perceiving persons and groups.Psychological Review, 103, 336-355.
  • Helveg-Larsen, M., & Shepperd, J. (2001). Do moderators of the optimistic bias affect personal or target risk estimates? A review of the literature.Personality and Social Psychology Review, 51, 74-95.
  • Klar, Y. (2002). Way beyond compare: Nonselective superiority and inferiority biases in judging randomly assig
  • ed group members relative to their peers.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 331-351.
  • Klar, Y., & Giliadi, E. E. (1997). No one in my group can be below the group's average: A robust positivity bias in favor of anonymous peers.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 885-901.
  • Klayman, J., & Ha, Y. W. (1987). Confirmation, disconfirmation, and information in hypothesis testing.Psychological Review, 94, 211-228.
  • Kruger, J. (1999). Lake Wobegon be gone! The "below-average effect" and the egocentric nature of comparative ability judgments.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 221-232.
  • Kruger, J., & Burrus, J. (2004). Egocentrism and focalism in unrealistic optimism (and pessimism).Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 332-340.
  • McConnell, A. R., Sherman, S. J., & Hamilton, D. L. (1997). Target entitativity: Implications for information processing about individual and group targets.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 750-762.
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  • Perloff, L. S., & Fetzer, B. K. (1986). Self-other judgments and perceived invulnerability to victimization.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 502-510.
  • Srull, T. K., & Gaelick, L. (1983). General principles and individual differences in the self as a habitual reference point: An examination of self-other judgments of similarity.Social Cognition, 2, 108-121.
  • Tversky, A. (1977). Features of similarity.Psychological Review, 84, 327-352.
  • Tversky, A., & Gati, I. (1978). Studies of similarity. In E. Rosch & B. Lloyd (Eds.),Cognition and categorization(pp. 81-98). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Weinstein, N. D. (1980). Unrealistic optimism about future life events.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 806-820.
  • Weinstein, N. D., & Lachendro, E. (1982). Egocentrism as a source of unrealistic optimism.Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 8, 195-200.
  • Wilson, T. D., Wheatley, T., Meyers, J. M., Gilbert, D. T., & Axsom, D. (2000). Focalism: A source of durability bias in affective forecasting.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 821-836.
  • Windschitl, P. D., Kruger, J., & Simms, E. (2003). The influence of egocentrism and focalism on people's optimism in competitions: When what affects us equally affects me more.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 389-408.
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikatory
CEJSH db identifier
09PLAAAA071020
Identyfikator YADDA
bwmeta1.element.37659ed1-d81d-36d1-93a2-6ee8097ecbd7
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