VALUE-ORIENTATION VS. ATTITUDES. CULTURAL TRANFORMATION OF THE CZECH SOCIETY AGAINST THE BACKGROUND OF ITS ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL TRANFORMATION
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The article analyses the phenomena of integration and stability of the Czech society emerging from the heterogeneous processes of economic, political, and cultural transformations. The starting point of the analysis is two contradictory theories: the theory of value pattern originating from structural functionalism of Talcott Parsons, and the theory of interests and attitudes related to a position within social and power structure originating from the constructivist structuralism of Pierre Bourdieu. The main difference between the two theories is that, according to Parsons, value orientations come from a symbolic order and social action is integrated upon shared common values, while Bourdieu asserts that attitudes are determined by the interests and resources inherent in the position within an objective social space. The essential question of the paper is whether it is possible to identify a dominant cultural value pattern in the Czech society and whether it is relevant to apply the structural functionalism methodology to the case of contemporary Czech society. The article uses surveys of value orientations and social justice perceptions in the Czech Republic. Due to the unclarity of theoretical backgrounds of these surveys and the coexistence of three basic types of social relationships in the Czech society only hypothetical conclusions referring to the main question can be drawn. There is no dominant value pattern in the Czech society because life strategies, value orientations and a dominant ideology of justice are determined by a class and status position. It does not mean that the Czech society is individualised, on the contrary, it is a differentiated social structure that plays the major role in differentiating the attitudes of the Czech population. Hence, it would be relevant to apply the Bourdieu's theory of social space to the study of value orientations and attitudes of the Czech population.
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